Environment

Nature

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Eesti piirkondlik areng. 2014. Regional Development in Estonia (p. 9)

The terrain of Estonia is rather flat. The highest peak is the 318-metre Suur Munamägi. Estonia’s nature is very varied and rich in different species, there are many forests and bogs here. The biggest bog in Estonia is the Puhatu bog, which covers 468 km².

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Environment

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Kaia Oras
– Eesti statistika aastaraamat. 2014. Statistical Yearbook of Estonia (p. 37)

In terms of the environment, the biggest challenge of the 21st century on the local and international level is finding solutions to various environmental problems. Climate change, shortage of natural resources, waste in the environment, decreasing biological diversity, toxic chemicals, water pollution, shortage of water resources and air pollution are just some of the problems for which solutions are needed. Climate change has become one of the most important issues internationally. The Europe 2020 strategy for smart, sustainable and inclusive growth sets the following targets for the European Union (EU) for the year 2020: decrease the emissions of greenhouse gases by 20%, increase energy efficiency by 20% and ensure the coverage of 20% of the final energy demand from renewable resources.

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Nature

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Minifacts about Estonia 2014 (p. 4)

The low population density of Estonia has favoured the diversity of our landscapes and communities. The coastline, which extends over approximately 3,800 kilometres, is indented and diverse with diff erent types of beaches. Estonia has over 1,500 islands in total and they are special because many of them provide a habitat for birds.

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Environmental taxes account enables analysing the taxes macroeconomically

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Kaia Oras, Kersti Salu
– Eesti Statistika Kvartalikiri. 4/13. Quarterly Bulletin of Statistics Estonia (p. 32)

The idea of an ecological tax reform is to decrease the taxation on labour and increase taxation on environmental pressure (pollution and use of natural resources). What are at the focus of the reform are environmental taxes as important economic instruments. In Estonia, the ecological tax reform was started in 2005, when the government approved the basic principles of the reform. It is hard to say specifically whether the raised environmental tax rates have resulted in decreased environmental pollution. However, the fallen rates of labour taxes have not decreased revenues from labour taxes.

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Environment

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Kaia Oras
– Eesti statistika aastaraamat. 2013. Statistical Yearbook of Estonia (p. 37)

Estonia’s sustainable development strategy “Sustainable Estonia 21” sets the target to achieve ecological balance. How well does Estonia’s economy fit in with the environment and how big is the environmental pressure of the economy seen through the lens of environmental problems?

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