Environment

Nature

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Minifacts about Estonia 2014 (p. 4)

The low population density of Estonia has favoured the diversity of our landscapes and communities. The coastline, which extends over approximately 3,800 kilometres, is indented and diverse with diff erent types of beaches. Estonia has over 1,500 islands in total and they are special because many of them provide a habitat for birds.

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Environmental taxes account enables analysing the taxes macroeconomically

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Kaia Oras, Kersti Salu
– Eesti Statistika Kvartalikiri. 4/13. Quarterly Bulletin of Statistics Estonia (p. 32)

The idea of an ecological tax reform is to decrease the taxation on labour and increase taxation on environmental pressure (pollution and use of natural resources). What are at the focus of the reform are environmental taxes as important economic instruments. In Estonia, the ecological tax reform was started in 2005, when the government approved the basic principles of the reform. It is hard to say specifically whether the raised environmental tax rates have resulted in decreased environmental pollution. However, the fallen rates of labour taxes have not decreased revenues from labour taxes.

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Environment

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Kaia Oras
– Eesti statistika aastaraamat. 2013. Statistical Yearbook of Estonia (p. 37)

Estonia’s sustainable development strategy “Sustainable Estonia 21” sets the target to achieve ecological balance. How well does Estonia’s economy fit in with the environment and how big is the environmental pressure of the economy seen through the lens of environmental problems?

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Nature

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Minifacts about Estonia 2013 (p. 4)

Estonia lies on the border area of maritime and coastal climate. Typical landscapes are semi-natural communities, swamps, large areas of forests, rivers and small lakes. Estonia is located on the East-Atlantic fl yway for the birds. One of the most important key sites for the birds of passage is Matsalu National Park.

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Environment

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Kaia Oras
– Eesti statistika aastaraamat. 2012. Statistical Yearbook of Estonia (p. 37)

2012 marks 20 years from the first United Nations Conference on Environment and Development in Rio de Janeiro and ten years from the World Summit on Sustainable Development in Johannesburg, where the elaboration and implementation of sustainable development policies was agreed as a development target. In addition to economic and social sustainability, environmental sustainability is of utmost importance.

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