Title of statistical activity: Purchasing power parity

Code of statistical activity: 20411

  1. Contact
  2. Metadata update
  3. Statistical presentation
  4. Unit of measure
  5. Reference period
  6. Institutional mandate
  7. Confidentiality
  8. Release policy
  9. Frequency of dissemination
  10. Accessibility and clarity
  11. Quality management
  12. Relevance
  13. Accuracy and reliability
  14. Timeliness and punctuality
  15. Coherence and comparability
  16. Cost and burden
  17. Data revision
  18. Statistical processing

1. Contact Individual or organisational contact points for the data or metadata, including information on how to reach the contact points.

1.1. Contact organisation The name of the organisation of the contact points for the data or metadata.

Statistics Estonia

1.2. Contact organisation unit An addressable subdivision of an organisation.

Economic and Environmental Statistics Department

1.3. Contact name The name of the contact points for the data or metadata.

Viktoria Trasanov

1.4. Contact person function The area of technical responsibility of the contact, such as "methodology", "database management" or "dissemination".


1.5. Contact mail address The postal address of the contact points for the data or metadata.

51 Tatari Str, 10134 Tallinn, Estonia

1.6. Contact email address E-mail address of the contact points for the data or metadata.


1.7. Contact phone number The telephone number of the contact points for the data or metadata.

+372 625 9240

2. Metadata update The date on which the metadata element was inserted or modified in the database.

2.1. Metadata last certified Date of the latest certification provided by the domain manager to confirm that the metadata posted are still up-to-date, even if the content has not been amended.


2.2. Metadata last update Date of last update of the content of the metadata.


3. Statistical presentation

3.1. Data description Main characteristics of the data set described in an easily understandable manner, referring to the data and indicators disseminated.

Prices of consumer and investment goods; bills of quantities (BOQ); data on gross domestic product (GDP), rents, wages and salaries, medical services and consumer price index (CPI)

3.2. Classification system Arrangement or division of objects into groups based on characteristics which the objects have in common.

Classification of Individual Consumption According to Purpose (ECOICOP5)

3.3. Sector coverage Main economic or other sectors covered by the statistics.

Purchasing power parities (PPPs) are calculated for gross domestic product (GDP) and its various sub-aggregates on the expenditure side of national accounts.

3.4. Statistical concepts and definitions Statistical characteristics of statistical observations.

Purchasing power parities (PPPs) may be defined as currency converters or as spatial price deflators. Thus, the PPPs can be used as currency conversion rates to convert expenditures expressed in national currencies into an artificial common currency, eliminating price level differences between countries.

3.5. Statistical unit Entity for which information is sought and for which statistics are ultimately compiled.

Estonia as a participant country

3.6. Statistical population The total membership or population or "universe" of a defined class of people, objects or events.

The expenditure side of national accounts


Not applicable

3.7. Reference area The country or geographic area to which the measured statistical phenomenon relates.

Estonia as a whole

3.8. Time coverage The length of time for which data are available.

1993, 1996, 1999–…

3.9. Base period The period of time used as the base of an index number, or to which a constant series refers.

Not applicable

4. Unit of measure The unit in which the data values are measured.

Purchasing power parities (PPP) can be interpreted as the exchange rates of national currencies against the purchasing power standard (PPS). They express the number of national currency units per PPS.

5. Reference period The period of time or point in time to which the measured observation is intended to refer.


6. Institutional mandate

6.1. Legal acts and other agreements Legal acts or other formal or informal agreements that assign responsibility as well as the authority to an agency for the collection, processing, and dissemination of statistics.


Commission Regulation (EU) No 193/2011 of 28 February 2011 implementing Regulation (EC) No 1445/2007 of the European Parliament and of the Council as regards the system of quality control used for Purchasing Power Parities

COMMISSION REGULATION (EU) 2015/1163 of 15 July 2015 implementing Regulation (EC) No 1445/2007 of the European Parliament and of the Council as regards the list of basic headings used for Purchasing Power Parities (Text with EEA relevance)

Regulation (EC) No 1445/2007 of the European Parliament and of the Council of 11 December 2007 establishing common rules for the provision of basic information on Purchasing Power Parities and for their calculation and dissemination


Not available


Not available

7. Confidentiality A property of data indicating the extent to which their unauthorised disclosure could be prejudicial or harmful to the interest of the source or other relevant parties.

7.1. Confidentiality - policy Legislative measures or other formal procedures which prevent unauthorised disclosure of data that identify a person or economic entity either directly or indirectly.

The dissemination of data collected for the purpose of producing official statistics is guided by the requirements provided for in § 34 and § 35 of the Official Statistics Act.

7.2. Confidentiality - data treatment Rules applied for treating the data set to ensure statistical confidentiality and prevent unauthorised disclosure.

The treatment of confidential data is regulated by the Procedure for Protection of Data Collected and Processed by Statistics Estonia: https://www.stat.ee/dokumendid/19410.

8. Release policy Rules for disseminating statistical data to interested parties.

8.1. Release calendar The schedule of statistical release dates.

Not applicable

8.2. Release calendar access Access to the release calendar information.

Not applicable

8.3. User access The policy for release of the data to users, the scope of dissemination (e.g. to the public, to selected users), how users are informed that the data are being released, and whether the policy determines the dissemination of statistical data to all users.

Not applicable

9. Frequency of dissemination The time interval at which the statistics are disseminated over a given time period.


10. Accessibility and clarity

10.1. News release Regular or ad-hoc press releases linked to the data.

Not published

10.2. Publications Regular or ad-hoc publications in which the data are made available to the public.

Not published

10.3. Online database Information about on-line databases in which the disseminated data can be accessed.

Not published

10.4. Microdata access Information on whether micro-data are also disseminated.

The dissemination of data collected for the purpose of producing official statistics is guided by the requirements provided for in § 34, § 35, § 36, § 37, § 38 of the Official Statistics Act. Access to microdata and anonymisation of microdata are regulated by Statistics Estonia’s procedure for dissemination of confidential data for scientific purposes: https://www.stat.ee/dokumendid/51669.

10.5. Other References to the most important other data dissemination done.

The data are submitted to Eurostat. The data are published in June and December in accordance with Eurostat’s release calendar.

10.6. Documentation on methodology Descriptive text and references to methodological documents available.

EUROSTAT-OECD Methodological Manual on Purchasing Power Parities (PPPs). Eurostat, OECD (2012)



10.7. Quality documentation Documentation on procedures applied for quality management and quality assessment.

Commission Regulation (EU) No 193/2011 of 28 February 2011 implementing Regulation (EC) No 1445/2007 of the European Parliament and of the Council as regards the system of quality control used for Purchasing Power Parities

11. Quality management Systems and frameworks in place within an organisation to manage the quality of statistical products and processes.

11.1. Quality assurance All systematic activities implemented that can be demonstrated to provide confidence that the processes will fulfil the requirements for the statistical output.

To assure the quality of processes and products, Statistics Estonia applies the EFQM Excellence Model, the European Statistics Code of Practice and the Quality Assurance Framework of the European Statistical System (ESS QAF). Statistics Estonia is also guided by the requirements in § 7. “Principles and quality criteria of producing official statistics” of the Official Statistics Act.

11.2. Quality assessment Overall assessment of data quality, based on standard quality criteria.

Detailed reviews of national practices should be undertaken by Eurostat in cooperation with each participating national statistics institute. This system of quality assessment has been implemented.

12. Relevance The degree to which statistical information meet current and potential needs of the users.

12.1. User needs Description of users and their respective needs with respect to the statistical data.

Ministry of Finance

Users’ suggestions and information about taking these into account are available on the website of Statistics Estonia at https://www.stat.ee/statistikatood.

12.2. User satisfaction Measures to determine user satisfaction.

Since 1996, Statistics Estonia has conducted reputation and user satisfaction surveys.

All results are available on the website at https://www.stat.ee/user-surveys.

12.3. Completeness The extent to which all statistics that are needed are available.

All indicators are calculated and published for all the participating countries.

13. Accuracy and reliability Accuracy: closeness of computations or estimates to the exact or true values that the statistics were intended to measure.
Reliability: closeness of the initial estimated value to the subsequent estimated value.

13.1. Overall accuracy Assessment of accuracy, linked to a certain data set or domain, which is summarising the various components.

The precision of purchasing power parities (PPPs) increases with the level of aggregation.

13.2. Sampling error That part of the difference between a population value and an estimate thereof, derived from a random sample, which is due to the fact that only a subset of the population is enumerated.

Not applicable

13.3. Non-sampling error Error in survey estimates which cannot be attributed to sampling fluctuations.

Not measured

14. Timeliness and punctuality

14.1. Timeliness Length of time between data availability and the event or phenomenon they describe.

Preliminary data are published 180 days after the end of the reference year (T + 180).

Preliminary results incorporating all new price and expenditure data for the year are published 365 days after the end of the reference year (T + 365).

Revised preliminary results incorporating the most recent expenditure estimates are published 730 days after the end of the reference year (T + 730).

Final results (no further updates, even if the state revises its national accounts estimates) are published 1,095 days after the end of the reference year (T + 1,095).

14.2. Punctuality Time lag between the actual delivery of the data and the target date when it should have been delivered.

Purchasing power parities (PPPs) are published by Eurostat in June and December. The exact publication date is determined a few months in advance.

15. Coherence and comparability

15.1. Comparability - geographical The extent to which statistics are comparable between geographical areas.

Purchasing power parities (PPPs) are used to calculate spatial price level indicators, and the comparability of results between countries is presumably very good.

15.2. Comparability - over time The extent to which statistics are comparable or reconcilable over time.

Indicators calculated using purchasing power parities (PPPs) are primarily suitable for comparisons of geographical locations at a given point in time.

15.3. Coherence - cross domain The extent to which statistics are reconcilable with those obtained through other data sources or statistical domains.

Purchasing power parities (PPPs) and the derived indicators are accessible from two domains in the Eurostat dissemination database: the PPP domain and the national accounts domain. The PPPs at the level of gross domestic product (GDP) are identical in the two domains. The expenditure data in the PPP domain is updated twice a year (in June and December). The data in the national accounts domain is updated continually as countries provide revised national accounts data. For this reason, the national accounts domain provides the most up-to-date indicators of GDP and GDP per capita in PPS.

15.4. Coherence - internal The extent to which statistics are consistent within a given data set.

The outputs of the statistical activity are coherent.

16. Cost and burden Cost associated with the collection and production of a statistical product and burden on respondents.

17. Data revision Any change in a value of a statistic released to the public.

17.1. Data revision - policy Policy aimed at ensuring the transparency of disseminated data, whereby preliminary data are compiled that are later revised.

The data revision policy and notification of corrections are described in the dissemination policy of Statistics Estonia at https://www.stat.ee/dissemination-policy.

17.2. Data revision - practice Information on the data revision practice.

The indicators based on purchasing power parities (PPPs) for a year (t) are published in four stages:

- after t + 6 months: first preliminary results;

- after t + 12 months: preliminary results, incorporating all new price and expenditure data for the year (t);

- after t + 24 months: revised preliminary results, incorporating the most recent expenditure estimates;

- after t + 36 months: final results for the year (t). These results are final, meaning that there will be no further updates, even if the state revises its national accounts estimates.

18. Statistical processing

18.1. Source data Characteristics and components of the raw statistical data used for compiling statistical aggregates.


The number of objects in the population depends on the reference year. Based on the methodology of the European comparison programme, the part of consumer goods has been divided over three years, and two surveys are done each year – in spring and autumn. The investment goods survey takes place every other year. In construction, the number of partially or fully evaluated projects changes every year. Right before the beginning of the survey, Eurostat sends the final list of objects to be evaluated for the purpose of the survey.


Not used


Data from statistical activities 20407 “Consumer Price Index” and 21401 “National accounts (annual)” are used.

18.2. Frequency of data collection Frequency with which the source data are collected.


18.3. Data collection Systematic process of gathering data for official statistics.

Statistics Estonia collects data by direct survey or phone interviews.

18.4. Data validation Process of monitoring the results of data compilation and ensuring the quality of statistical results.

The validation of input data is an interactive process between Statistics Estonia and Eurostat.

18.5. Data compilation Operations performed on data to derive new information according to a given set of rules.

The calculation of purchasing power parities (PPPs) is undertaken by Eurostat in three stages.

18.6. Adjustment The set of procedures employed to modify statistical data to enable it to conform to national or international standards or to address data quality differences when compiling specific data sets.

The data is revised by Eurostat.

19. Comments Supplementary descriptive text which can be attached to data or metadata.

Not available