Title of statistical activity: Research and development

Code of statistical activity: 21701

  1. Contact
  2. Metadata update
  3. Statistical presentation
  4. Unit of measure
  5. Reference period
  6. Institutional mandate
  7. Confidentiality
  8. Release policy
  9. Frequency of dissemination
  10. Accessibility and clarity
  11. Quality management
  12. Relevance
  13. Accuracy and reliability
  14. Timeliness and punctuality
  15. Coherence and comparability
  16. Cost and burden
  17. Data revision
  18. Statistical processing
  19. Comments

1. Contact Individual or organisational contact points for the data or metadata, including information on how to reach the contact points.

1.1. Contact organisation The name of the organisation of the contact points for the data or metadata.

Statistics Estonia

1.2. Contact organisation unit An addressable subdivision of an organisation.

Enterprise and Agricultural Statistics Department

1.3. Contact name The name of the contact points for the data or metadata.

Tiina Pärson

1.4. Contact person function The area of technical responsibility of the contact, such as "methodology", "database management" or "dissemination".

Leading Statistician-Methodologist

1.5. Contact mail address The postal address of the contact points for the data or metadata.

51 Tatari Str, 10134 Tallinn, Estonia

1.6. Contact email address E-mail address of the contact points for the data or metadata.

tiina.parson@stat.ee

1.7. Contact phone number The telephone number of the contact points for the data or metadata.

+372 625 9233

2. Metadata update The date on which the metadata element was inserted or modified in the database.

2.1. Metadata last certified Date of the latest certification provided by the domain manager to confirm that the metadata posted are still up-to-date, even if the content has not been amended.

08/05/2018

2.2. Metadata last update Date of last update of the content of the metadata.

08/05/2018

3. Statistical presentation

3.1. Data description Main characteristics of the data set described in an easily understandable manner, referring to the data and indicators disseminated.

Research and development (R&D) personnel as number of persons and in full-time equivalents by occupation category, sex, level of education, age, field of research and institutional sector

Foreign researchers in non-profit institutional sectors

R&D expenditure of institutions by type of expenditure, source of financing, type of R&D, field of research, socio-economic objective and institutional sector

R&D expenditure in the business enterprise sector by type of expenditure, source of financing, type of R&D, economic activity and size class

3.2. Classification system Arrangement or division of objects into groups based on characteristics which the objects have in common.

Estonian Classification of Economic Activities (EMTAK 2008) based on NACE Rev. 2

Classification of Estonian administrative units and settlements (EHAK)

International Standard Codes for the Representation of the Names of Countries (ISO 3166)

3.3. Sector coverage Main economic or other sectors covered by the statistics.

All business activities excluding households and extra-territorial units regardless of the number of employed persons

3.4. Statistical concepts and definitions Statistical characteristics of statistical observations.

Applied research – original studies undertaken in order to acquire new knowledge directed primarily at finding a specific application area or objective for this knowledge.

Basic research – theoretical or experimental studies undertaken to acquire new knowledge of the underlying foundations of phenomena and events, without the aim of immediate application of this knowledge.

Experimental development – systematic work drawing on existing knowledge gained from basic or applied research in order to develop new or substantially improved materials, products, devices, processes, systems and services.

Full-time equivalent (FTE) – working time spent on research and development by research and development personnel in person-years.

Research and development personnel – researchers and engineers, technicians and supporting staff who spend at least 10% of their working time on research and development activities.

Research and development (R&D) – creative work undertaken on a systematic basis in order to increase the stock of knowledge, including knowledge about humans, culture and society, and the application of this knowledge.

Researchers and engineers – all professionals with an academic degree or higher education diploma engaged in basic or applied research or experimental development to create new knowledge, products, processes, methods and systems; all academic staff engaged in research and development activities, as well as managers of research institutions and their units who are engaged in planning and management of scientific-technical projects; postgraduate students performing original research.

Supporting staff – manual workers, secretarial and clerical staff participating in research and development projects or directly associated with such projects.

Technicians – persons with vocational or technical education engaged in research and development activities and performing tasks under the supervision of researchers or engineers. Equal to technicians are persons who perform their research and development tasks under the supervision of researchers and engineers in the field of social sciences and humanities.

3.5. Statistical unit Entity for which information is sought and for which statistics are ultimately compiled.

Economic unit

3.6. Statistical population The total membership or population or "universe" of a defined class of people, objects or events.

Research institutions, universities, higher education institutions and other public sector institutions (museums, archives, nature preserves, clinics) and non-profit associations and foundations engaged in R&D. Companies engaged in or potentially engaged in R&D

FRAME

List of institutions, non-profit associations and companies that are engaged in or are potentially engaged in research and development (R&D). The list is generated from the Business Register for Statistical Purposes

List of licensed universities and higher education institutions compiled by the Ministry of Education and Research

Register of institutions engaged in R&D maintained by the Estonian Research Portal

Grant list of the Estonian Research Council

List of entities who have received R&D support, compiled by the Environmental Investment Centre and Enterprise Estonia

Enterprises who have reported R&D activities since 2016 (as part of various statistical activities)

Enterprises with knowledge-intensive business activities that were born in the previous year

3.7. Reference area The country or geographic area to which the measured statistical phenomenon relates.

Estonia as a whole

3.8. Time coverage The length of time for which data are available.

1992–…

3.9. Base period The period of time used as the base of an index number, or to which a constant series refers.

Not applicable

4. Unit of measure The unit in which the data values are measured.

Research and development personnel – number of persons and full-time equivalent (FTE)

Research and development expenditure – euro

Share of expenditure by type – %

5. Reference period The period of time or point in time to which the measured observation is intended to refer.

Year

6. Institutional mandate

6.1. Legal acts and other agreements Legal acts or other formal or informal agreements that assign responsibility as well as the authority to an agency for the collection, processing, and dissemination of statistics.

DIRECTLY APPLICABLE LEGAL ACTS

Decision No 1608/2003/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council of 22 July 2003 concerning the production and development of Community statistics on science and technology (Text with EEA relevance)

Commission Regulation (EC) No 753/2004 of 22 April 2004 implementing Decision No 1608/2003/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council as regards statistics on science and technology

Commission Regulation (EC) No 995/2001 of 22 May 2001 implementing Regulation (EC) No 2516/2000 of the European Parliament and of the Council modifying the common principles of the European system of national and regional accounts in the Community (ESA 95) as concerns taxes and social contributions

OTHER LEGAL ACTS

Not available

OTHER AGREEMENTS

Statistical Office of the European Union (Eurostat)

Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD)

United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO)

7. Confidentiality A property of data indicating the extent to which their unauthorised disclosure could be prejudicial or harmful to the interest of the source or other relevant parties.

7.1. Confidentiality - policy Legislative measures or other formal procedures which prevent unauthorised disclosure of data that identify a person or economic entity either directly or indirectly.

The dissemination of data collected for the purpose of producing official statistics is guided by the requirements provided for in § 34 and § 35 of the Official Statistics Act.

7.2. Confidentiality - data treatment Rules applied for treating the data set to ensure statistical confidentiality and prevent unauthorised disclosure.

The treatment of confidential data is regulated by the Procedure for Protection of Data Collected and Processed by Statistics Estonia: https://www.stat.ee/66485.

8. Release policy Rules for disseminating statistical data to interested parties.

8.1. Release calendar The schedule of statistical release dates.

Notifications about the dissemination of statistics are published in the release calendar, which is available on the website. Every year on 1 October, the release times of the statistical database, news releases, main indicators by IMF SDDS and publications for the following year are announced in the release calendar (in the case of publications – the release month).

8.2. Release calendar access Access to the release calendar information.

https://www.stat.ee/release-calendar

8.3. User access The policy for release of the data to users, the scope of dissemination (e.g. to the public, to selected users), how users are informed that the data are being released, and whether the policy determines the dissemination of statistical data to all users.

All users have been granted equal access to official statistics: dissemination dates of official statistics are announced in advance and no user category (incl. Eurostat, state authorities and mass media) is provided access to official statistics before other users. Official statistics are first published in the statistical database. If there is also a news release, it is published simultaneously with data in the statistical database. Official statistics are available on the website at 8:00 a.m. on the date announced in the release calendar.

9. Frequency of dissemination The time interval at which the statistics are disseminated over a given time period.

Annual

10. Accessibility and clarity

10.1. News release Regular or ad-hoc press releases linked to the data.

Regular press release “Research and Development Expenditure” once a year at the end of November. The news release can be viewed on the website at https://www.stat.ee/news-releases.

10.2. Publications Regular or ad-hoc publications in which the data are made available to the public.

Not published

10.3. Online database Information about on-line databases in which the disseminated data can be accessed.

Data are published under the subject area “Economy / Science, technology and innovation” in the statistical database at http://pub.stat.ee.

10.4. Microdata access Information on whether micro-data are also disseminated.

The dissemination of data collected for the purpose of producing official statistics is guided by the requirements provided for in § 34, § 35, § 36, § 37, § 38 of the Official Statistics Act. Access to microdata and anonymisation of microdata are regulated by Statistics Estonia’s procedure for dissemination of confidential data for scientific purposes: https://www.stat.ee/dokumendid/51669.

10.5. Other References to the most important other data dissemination done.

Data serve as input for statistical activities 21303 “Government finance” and 50201 “Sustainable development indicators”.

10.6. Documentation on methodology Descriptive text and references to methodological documents available.

Frascati Manual. Proposed Standard Practice for Surveys on Research and Experimental Development, OECD (2015)

https://www.oecd.org/publications/frascati-manual-2015-9789264239012-en.htm

10.7. Quality documentation Documentation on procedures applied for quality management and quality assessment.

Synthesis of National Quality Reports for R&D and GBAORD statistics:

http://ec.europa.eu/eurostat/cache/metadata/en/rd_esms.htm

A quality report is sent to Eurostat for each survey period of research and development activities.

11. Quality management Systems and frameworks in place within an organisation to manage the quality of statistical products and processes.

11.1. Quality assurance All systematic activities implemented that can be demonstrated to provide confidence that the processes will fulfil the requirements for the statistical output.

To assure the quality of processes and products, Statistics Estonia applies the EFQM Excellence Model, the European Statistics Code of Practice and the Quality Assurance Framework of the European Statistical System (ESS QAF). Statistics Estonia is also guided by the requirements in § 7. “Principles and quality criteria of producing official statistics” of the Official Statistics Act.

11.2. Quality assessment Overall assessment of data quality, based on standard quality criteria.

Statistics Estonia performs all statistical activities according to an international model (Generic Statistical Business Process Model – GSBPM). According to the GSBPM, the final phase of statistical activities is overall evaluation using information gathered in each phase or sub-process; this information can take many forms, including feedback from users, process metadata, system metrics and suggestions from employees. This information is used to prepare the evaluation report which outlines all the quality problems related to the specific statistical activity and serves as input for improvement actions.

12. Relevance The degree to which statistical information meet current and potential needs of the users.

12.1. User needs Description of users and their respective needs with respect to the statistical data.

Ministry of Education and Research

Government of the Republic

Ministry of Economic Affairs and Communications

Users’ suggestions and information about taking these into account are available on the website of Statistics Estonia at https://www.stat.ee/statistikatood.

12.2. User satisfaction Measures to determine user satisfaction.

Since 1996, Statistics Estonia has conducted reputation and user satisfaction surveys.

All results are available on the website at https://www.stat.ee/user-surveys.

12.3. Completeness The extent to which all statistics that are needed are available.

In compliance with the rules (regulations)

13. Accuracy and reliability Accuracy: closeness of computations or estimates to the exact or true values that the statistics were intended to measure.
Reliability: closeness of the initial estimated value to the subsequent estimated value.

13.1. Overall accuracy Assessment of accuracy, linked to a certain data set or domain, which is summarising the various components.

The accuracy of source data is monitored by assessing the methodological soundness of data sources and the adherence to the methodological recommendations.

The type of survey and the data collection methods ensure sufficient coverage and timeliness.

13.2. Sampling error That part of the difference between a population value and an estimate thereof, derived from a random sample, which is due to the fact that only a subset of the population is enumerated.

Not applicable

13.3. Non-sampling error Error in survey estimates which cannot be attributed to sampling fluctuations.

Statistics Estonia and the NSIs try to reduce non-sampling errors through continuous methodological and survey process improvements.

14. Timeliness and punctuality

14.1. Timeliness Length of time between data availability and the event or phenomenon they describe.

Data on institutions are published 165 days after the end of the reference year (T + 165), preliminary data on companies are published 305 days after the end of the reference year (T + 305) and final data – 335 days after the end of the reference year (T + 335).

14.2. Punctuality Time lag between the actual delivery of the data and the target date when it should have been delivered.

The data have been published at the time announced in the release calendar.

15. Coherence and comparability

15.1. Comparability - geographical The extent to which statistics are comparable between geographical areas.

The data are comparable with countries which collect data based on the common OECD methodology, which is also used by Eurostat.

15.2. Comparability - over time The extent to which statistics are comparable or reconcilable over time.

Data on institutions are comparable since 1994. Data on companies are comparable since 1998 (data by economic activity are comparable since 2007).

15.3. Coherence - cross domain The extent to which statistics are reconcilable with those obtained through other data sources or statistical domains.

The data of R&D expenditure of companies have in even years been duplicated with data collected by innovation survey. The coherence issues arise from the fact that the questionnaires are filled in by different persons in a company.

15.4. Coherence - internal The extent to which statistics are consistent within a given data set.

The outputs of the statistical activity are coherent.

16. Cost and burden Cost associated with the collection and production of a statistical product and burden on respondents.

Cost of statistical activity 26.6 thousand euros (data for 2018)

Total time of filling in reports of the statistical activity, working days: 163.6

Average time of filling in the reports, hours per report:

Teadus- ja arendustegevus 4.1

Teadus- ja arendustegevus (ettevõttes) 0.6

(data for 2016)

17. Data revision Any change in a value of a statistic released to the public.

17.1. Data revision - policy Policy aimed at ensuring the transparency of disseminated data, whereby preliminary data are compiled that are later revised.

The data revision policy and notification of corrections are described in the dissemination policy of Statistics Estonia at https://www.stat.ee/dissemination-policy.

17.2. Data revision - practice Information on the data revision practice.

The published data may be revised if the methodology is modified, errors are discovered, new or better data become available.

18. Statistical processing

18.1. Source data Characteristics and components of the raw statistical data used for compiling statistical aggregates.

SURVEY DATA

The population is 2,200 objects and all objects are observed.

The population includes research and educational institutions and non-profit associations engaged in research and development (R&D), enterprises with R&D as the main economic activity or receiving support for R&D, high-technology or biotechnology enterprises or enterprises that have shown R&D expenditure in statistical reports during the last years or if information about their R&D activities has been received from other sources, new enterprises with knowledge-intensive economic activities.

ADMINISTRATIVE DATA

Not used

DATA FROM OTHER STATISTICAL ACTIVITIES

Not used

18.2. Frequency of data collection Frequency with which the source data are collected.

Annual

18.3. Data collection Systematic process of gathering data for official statistics.

Data are collected and the submission of questionnaires is monitored through eSTAT (the web channel for electronic data submission). The questionnaires have been designed for independent completion in eSTAT and include instructions and controls. The questionnaires and information about data submission are available on Statistics Estonia’s website at https://www.stat.ee/andmete-esitamine (in Estonian).

Data are collected with the annual statistical questionnaires “Teadus- ja arendustegevus” and “Teadus- ja arendustegevus (ettevõttes)”.

18.4. Data validation Process of monitoring the results of data compilation and ensuring the quality of statistical results.

Arithmetic and qualitative controls are used in the validation process, including comparison with other data. Before data dissemination the internal coherence of the data is checked.

In determining the population and checking the received data, the data of foundations providing research support (Enterprise Estonia – EAS, Environmental Investment Centre – EIC, Estonian Reseach Council – ETAG) are used.

18.5. Data compilation Operations performed on data to derive new information according to a given set of rules.

Variables and statistical units which were not collected but which are necessary for producing output are calculated. New variables are calculated by applying arithmetic conversion to already existing variables. This may be done repeatedly; the derived variable may, in turn, be based on previously derived variables.

18.6. Adjustment The set of procedures employed to modify statistical data to enable it to conform to national or international standards or to address data quality differences when compiling specific data sets.

Not applicable

19. Comments Supplementary descriptive text which can be attached to data or metadata.

Not available