Title of statistical activity: Income, poverty and material deprivation

Code of statistical activity: 40009

  1. Contact
  2. Metadata update
  3. Statistical presentation
  4. Unit of measure
  5. Reference period
  6. Institutional mandate
  7. Confidentiality
  8. Release policy
  9. Frequency of dissemination
  10. Accessibility and clarity
  11. Quality management
  12. Relevance
  13. Accuracy and reliability
  14. Timeliness and punctuality
  15. Coherence and comparability
  16. Cost and burden
  17. Data revision
  18. Statistical processing
  19. Comments

1. Contact Individual or organisational contact points for the data or metadata, including information on how to reach the contact points.

1.1. Contact organisation The name of the organisation of the contact points for the data or metadata.

Statistics Estonia

1.2. Contact organisation unit An addressable subdivision of an organisation.

Social Statistics and Analysis Department

1.3. Contact name The name of the contact points for the data or metadata.

Anu Õmblus

1.4. Contact person function The area of technical responsibility of the contact, such as "methodology", "database management" or "dissemination".

Analyst

1.5. Contact mail address The postal address of the contact points for the data or metadata.

51 Tatari Str, 10134 Tallinn, Estonia

1.6. Contact email address E-mail address of the contact points for the data or metadata.

anu.omblus@stat.ee

1.7. Contact phone number The telephone number of the contact points for the data or metadata.

+372 625 8482

2. Metadata update The date on which the metadata element was inserted or modified in the database.

2.1. Metadata last certified Date of the latest certification provided by the domain manager to confirm that the metadata posted are still up-to-date, even if the content has not been amended.

08/05/2018

2.2. Metadata last update Date of last update of the content of the metadata.

08/05/2018

3. Statistical presentation

3.1. Data description Main characteristics of the data set described in an easily understandable manner, referring to the data and indicators disseminated.

Data on income, poverty and material deprivation by sex, age, type of household, socio-economic status and other parameters

3.2. Classification system Arrangement or division of objects into groups based on characteristics which the objects have in common.

Not used

3.3. Sector coverage Main economic or other sectors covered by the statistics.

Households

3.4. Statistical concepts and definitions Statistical characteristics of statistical observations.

Absolute poverty gap – the distance of mean income of people in absolute poverty from the absolute poverty threshold in percentages.

Absolute poverty rate – share of persons with an equivalised annual disposable income lower than the absolute poverty threshold.

Absolute poverty rate before social transfers – the absolute poverty rate when social benefits paid by the state and local governments are not counted in the household's income. It can be calculated in two ways: either by counting pensions as social transfers and excluding them from the household's income or by including them in the household's income like wages and salaries.

Absolute poverty threshold – since 2004 the estimated subsistence minimum. In 1997–2003, the absolute poverty threshold was established by the working group of the University of Tartu based on household consumption data and considering people’s minimum needs.

Adult – a household member aged 18 or older (as at 1 January of the reference year) who is not a dependent child.

Adult and child(ren) – household consisting of one adult and at least one dependent child.

At-risk-of-poverty rate – share of persons with an equivalised annual disposable income lower than the at-risk-of-poverty threshold.

At-risk-of-poverty rate anchored in time – share of persons with an equivalised annual disposable income lower than the at-risk-of-poverty threshold from three years ago adjusted for inflation.

At-risk-of-poverty rate before social transfers – the at-risk-of-poverty rate when social benefits paid by the state and local governments are not counted in the household's income. It can be calculated in two ways: either by counting pensions as social transfers and excluding them from the household's income or by including them in the household's income like wages and salaries.

At-risk-of-poverty threshold – 60% of the median equivalised annual disposable income of household members.

Below upper secondary education – less than primary education, primary education, basic education, vocational education for young people without basic education.

Couple aged 64 and less without children – household consisting of two members, both aged 64 or less.

Couple without children, at least one partner is aged over 64 – household consisting of two adults, at least one of them aged 65 or over.

Couple with one child – household consisting of two adults and one dependent child.

Couple with three or more children – household consisting of two adults and at least three dependent children.

Couple with two children – household consisting of two adults and two dependent children.

Dependent child – a household member aged 0–17 (as at 1 January of the reference year) or a household member aged 18–24 whose main social status is inactive and who lives with at least one parent.

Disposable (net) income – a sum of income from wage labour and self-employment, property income, social transfers, regular inter-household cash transfers received and receipts for tax adjustment of which inter-household cash transfers paid, taxes on wealth and repayments for tax adjustment have been subtracted.

Equivalised income – total household income, which is divided by a sum of equivalence scales of all household members.

Equivalence scale – a weight designated to a household member depending on his/her age to reflect the joint consumption of a household.

Estimated subsistence minimum – the minimum amount of living resources, which covers the daily needs of a person. The subsistence minimum consists of minimum estimated food basket (excl. expenditure on alcoholic beverages and tobacco products) and individual non-food expenditures (incl. expenditure on dwelling).

Gini coefficient – the relationship of cumulative shares of the population arranged according to the level of equivalised disposable income to the cumulative share of the equivalised total disposable income received by them. The value of Gini coefficient varies from 0 to 1. The closer the value to 0 is, the more equally income is distributed in a country; the closer the value gets to 1, the more unequally income is distributed.

Highest quintile – fifth of the population receiving the highest equivalised disposable income.

Household – a group of persons living in the common main dwelling (at the same address), who share joint financial and/or food resources and whose members consider themselves to belong to the same household. Household can also consist of one member only.

Household with children – household where there is at least one dependent child.

Household without children – household where there are no dependent children.

Labour status – labour status which characterised a person for more than 6 months in a year.

Long-term unemployment rate – the share of people who have been unemployed for a year or longer of total labour force.

Lowest quintile – fifth of the population receiving the lowest equivalised disposable income.

Material deprivation rate – the share of persons, who cannot afford at least 4 of the 9 items: 1) to pay rent or utility bills, 2) keep home adequately warm, 3) face unexpected expenses, 4) eat meat, fish or a protein equivalent every second day, 5) a week holiday away from home, 6) a car, 7) a washing machine, 8) a colour TV or 9) a telephone.

Minimum estimated food basket – food products which cover a person’s daily need of nutrients, vitamins and minerals without causing health problems. The energy value of the minimum estimated food basket is 2,400 kcal per day.

Quintile share ratio – the sum of equivalised annual disposable income of the highest quintile divided by the sum of equivalised annual disposable income of the lowest quintile.

Relative median at-risk-of-poverty gap – the distance of mean income of people at-risk-of-poverty from the at-risk-of-poverty threshold in percentages.

Severe material deprivation rate – the share of persons, who cannot afford at least 4 of the 9 items: 1) to pay rent or utility bills, 2) keep home adequately warm, 3) face unexpected expenses, 4) eat meat, fish or a protein equivalent every second day, 5) a week holiday away from home, 6) a car, 7) a washing machine, 8) a colour TV or 9) a telephone.

Single person aged over 65 – household consisting of one person aged 65 or more.

Single person aged under 65 – household consisting of one person aged 64 or less.

Tertiary education – professional secondary education based on secondary education, higher education, Master`s and Doctor`s degree.

Transfers – payments made by collectively organised schemes, government or local authorities with the intension to relieve the households or persons from the financial burden of a number of risks.

Upper secondary education – vocational training based on basic education, general secondary education, vocational secondary education based on basic education, professional secondary education based on basic education, vocational secondary education based on secondary education.

Very long-term unemployment rate – the share of people who have been unemployed for two years or longer of total labour force.

Work intensity in a household – the total number of months spent by working age household members (aged 59 and under) in employment or self-employment during income reference period relative to the maximum number of months the household members could have spent in employment or self-employment. The indicator ranges from zero (no working age member worked) to one (all working age members worked throughout the income reference period). Dependent children are not counted as working age household members.

Young people with education below upper secondary education – a person aged 18–24 who has basic education or less than basic education and who is not acquiring formal education or participating in training.

3.5. Statistical unit Entity for which information is sought and for which statistics are ultimately compiled.

Person

Household

3.6. Statistical population The total membership or population or "universe" of a defined class of people, objects or events.

Permanent residents

FRAME

Households and their members living at the address registered in the Population Register

3.7. Reference area The country or geographic area to which the measured statistical phenomenon relates.

Estonia as a whole

3.8. Time coverage The length of time for which data are available.

2000–…

3.9. Base period The period of time used as the base of an index number, or to which a constant series refers.

Not applicable

4. Unit of measure The unit in which the data values are measured.

percent, %

5. Reference period The period of time or point in time to which the measured observation is intended to refer.

Year

6. Institutional mandate

6.1. Legal acts and other agreements Legal acts or other formal or informal agreements that assign responsibility as well as the authority to an agency for the collection, processing, and dissemination of statistics.

DIRECTLY APPLICABLE LEGAL ACTS

Regulation (EC) No 1177/2003 of the European Parliament and of the Council of 16 June 2003 concerning Community statistics on income and living conditions (EU-SILC)

OTHER LEGAL ACTS

Not available

OTHER AGREEMENTS

Not available

7. Confidentiality A property of data indicating the extent to which their unauthorised disclosure could be prejudicial or harmful to the interest of the source or other relevant parties.

7.1. Confidentiality - policy Legislative measures or other formal procedures which prevent unauthorised disclosure of data that identify a person or economic entity either directly or indirectly.

The dissemination of data collected for the purpose of producing official statistics is guided by the requirements provided for in § 34 and § 35 of the Official Statistics Act.

7.2. Confidentiality - data treatment Rules applied for treating the data set to ensure statistical confidentiality and prevent unauthorised disclosure.

The treatment of confidential data is regulated by the Procedure for Protection of Data Collected and Processed by Statistics Estonia: https://www.stat.ee/66485.

8. Release policy Rules for disseminating statistical data to interested parties.

8.1. Release calendar The schedule of statistical release dates.

Notifications about the dissemination of statistics are published in the release calendar, which is available on the website. Every year on 1 October, the release times of the statistical database, news releases, main indicators by IMF SDDS and publications for the following year are announced in the release calendar (in the case of publications – the release month).

8.2. Release calendar access Access to the release calendar information.

https://www.stat.ee/release-calendar

8.3. User access The policy for release of the data to users, the scope of dissemination (e.g. to the public, to selected users), how users are informed that the data are being released, and whether the policy determines the dissemination of statistical data to all users.

All users have been granted equal access to official statistics: dissemination dates of official statistics are announced in advance and no user category (incl. Eurostat, state authorities and mass media) is provided access to official statistics before other users. Official statistics are first published in the statistical database. If there is also a news release, it is published simultaneously with data in the statistical database. Official statistics are available on the website at 8:00 a.m. on the date announced in the release calendar.

9. Frequency of dissemination The time interval at which the statistics are disseminated over a given time period.

Annual

10. Accessibility and clarity

10.1. News release Regular or ad-hoc press releases linked to the data.

The news release “Relative poverty” once a year. The news release can be viewed on the website at https://www.stat.ee/news-releases.

10.2. Publications Regular or ad-hoc publications in which the data are made available to the public.

Not published

10.3. Online database Information about on-line databases in which the disseminated data can be accessed.

Data are published under the subject area “Social life / Social exclusion and poverty” and “Income” in the statistical database at http://pub.stat.ee.

10.4. Microdata access Information on whether micro-data are also disseminated.

The dissemination of data collected for the purpose of producing official statistics is guided by the requirements provided for in § 34, § 35, § 36, § 37, § 38 of the Official Statistics Act. Access to microdata and anonymisation of microdata are regulated by Statistics Estonia’s procedure for dissemination of confidential data for scientific purposes: https://www.stat.ee/dokumendid/51669.

10.5. Other References to the most important other data dissemination done.

Not used

10.6. Documentation on methodology Descriptive text and references to methodological documents available.

The Estonian Social Survey. Methodological Report, Statistics Estonia (2010)

https://www.stat.ee/dokumendid/42770

10.7. Quality documentation Documentation on procedures applied for quality management and quality assessment.

The quality report sent to Eurostat is available at https://circabc.europa.eu/faces/jsp/extension/wai/navigation/container.jsp

11. Quality management Systems and frameworks in place within an organisation to manage the quality of statistical products and processes.

11.1. Quality assurance All systematic activities implemented that can be demonstrated to provide confidence that the processes will fulfil the requirements for the statistical output.

To assure the quality of processes and products, Statistics Estonia applies the EFQM Excellence Model, the European Statistics Code of Practice and the Quality Assurance Framework of the European Statistical System (ESS QAF). Statistics Estonia is also guided by the requirements in § 7. “Principles and quality criteria of producing official statistics” of the Official Statistics Act.

11.2. Quality assessment Overall assessment of data quality, based on standard quality criteria.

Statistics Estonia performs all statistical activities according to an international model (Generic Statistical Business Process Model – GSBPM). According to the GSBPM, the final phase of statistical activities is overall evaluation using information gathered in each phase or sub-process; this information can take many forms, including feedback from users, process metadata, system metrics and suggestions from employees. This information is used to prepare the evaluation report which outlines all the quality problems related to the specific statistical activity and serves as input for improvement actions.

12. Relevance The degree to which statistical information meet current and potential needs of the users.

12.1. User needs Description of users and their respective needs with respect to the statistical data.

Ministry of Social Affairs

Users’ suggestions and information about taking these into account are available on the website of Statistics Estonia at https://www.stat.ee/statistikatood.

12.2. User satisfaction Measures to determine user satisfaction.

Since 1996, Statistics Estonia has conducted reputation and user satisfaction surveys.

All results are available on the website at https://www.stat.ee/user-surveys.

12.3. Completeness The extent to which all statistics that are needed are available.

The data are complete and in compliance with the data composition requirements of EU-SILC regulation of the European Commission.

13. Accuracy and reliability Accuracy: closeness of computations or estimates to the exact or true values that the statistics were intended to measure.
Reliability: closeness of the initial estimated value to the subsequent estimated value.

13.1. Overall accuracy Assessment of accuracy, linked to a certain data set or domain, which is summarising the various components.

The accuracy of source data is monitored by assessing the methodological soundness of data sources and the adherence to the methodological recommendations.

13.2. Sampling error That part of the difference between a population value and an estimate thereof, derived from a random sample, which is due to the fact that only a subset of the population is enumerated.

Sampling error estimates are calculated for all indicators found, but these are published only for more important indicators.

13.3. Non-sampling error Error in survey estimates which cannot be attributed to sampling fluctuations.

Although a person has the obligation to ensure correctness of residential address in the population register, there is some under-coverage of persons and households there. Assuming that all persons living permanently in Estonia are registered in the population register and considering the amount of imprecise addresses in the population register, the under-coverage of households may be at most 1–1.5%.

14. Timeliness and punctuality

14.1. Timeliness Length of time between data availability and the event or phenomenon they describe.

The data are published 330 days after the end of the reference year (T + 330).

14.2. Punctuality Time lag between the actual delivery of the data and the target date when it should have been delivered.

The data have been published at the time announced in the release calendar.

15. Coherence and comparability

15.1. Comparability - geographical The extent to which statistics are comparable between geographical areas.

The data are comparable with the data of other European Union countries.

15.2. Comparability - over time The extent to which statistics are comparable or reconcilable over time.

The data are comparable since 2005.

15.3. Coherence - cross domain The extent to which statistics are reconcilable with those obtained through other data sources or statistical domains.

Differences in the methodology, especially in the data collection instrument, need to be taken into account when comparing the statistics with data from other sources.

15.4. Coherence - internal The extent to which statistics are consistent within a given data set.

The outputs of the statistical activity are coherent.

16. Cost and burden Cost associated with the collection and production of a statistical product and burden on respondents.

Cost of statistical activity 11.9 thousand euros (data for 2018)

Total time of filling in the reports of statistical activities, working days: 7.8

17. Data revision Any change in a value of a statistic released to the public.

17.1. Data revision - policy Policy aimed at ensuring the transparency of disseminated data, whereby preliminary data are compiled that are later revised.

The data revision policy and notification of corrections are described in the dissemination policy of Statistics Estonia at https://www.stat.ee/dissemination-policy.

17.2. Data revision - practice Information on the data revision practice.

The published data may be revised if the methodology is modified, errors are discovered, new or better data become available.

18. Statistical processing

18.1. Source data Characteristics and components of the raw statistical data used for compiling statistical aggregates.

SURVEY DATA

Not used

ADMINISTRATIVE DATA

Since 2012, the statistics are calculated partially on the basis of the data of registers (Tax and Customs Board, Unemployment Insurance Fund, Health Insurance Fund, Social Insurance Board).

DATA FROM OTHER STATISTICAL ACTIVITIES

Data from statistical activity 40003 “Household Panel Survey” are used.

18.2. Frequency of data collection Frequency with which the source data are collected.

Annual

18.3. Data collection Systematic process of gathering data for official statistics.

Statistics are calculated on the basis of the Household Panel Survey data, since 2012 partially on the basis of the data of registers (Tax and Customs Board, Unemployment Insurance Fund, Health Insurance Fund, Social Insurance Board). Household Panel Survey is a personal survey designed to obtain reliable statistics on income distribution of households and persons, living conditions and social exclusion.

All households living permanently in Estonia are considered the survey population. Persons living in institutional households (children’s homes, care homes, convents, etc.) are excluded. All published estimates have been calculated for the total population of a respective region. The size of respective populations has been determined on the basis of the estimated total population provided by Statistics Estonia.

Data from Tax and Customs Board are received via an FTP-server and X-Road. Data from Social Insurance Board, Unemployment Insurance Fund and Health Insurance Fund are received via an FTP-server.

18.4. Data validation Process of monitoring the results of data compilation and ensuring the quality of statistical results.

Before data dissemination, the internal coherence of the data are checked.

18.5. Data compilation Operations performed on data to derive new information according to a given set of rules.

In the case of missing or unreliable data, estimate imputation based on established regulations will be used.

Variables and statistical units which were not collected but which are necessary for producing the output are calculated. New variables are calculated by applying arithmetic conversion to already existing variables. This may be done repeatedly, the derived variable may, in turn, be based on previously derived new variables.

Microdata are aggregated to the level necessary for analysis. This includes aggregating the data according to the classification, and calculating various statistical measures, e.g. average, median, dispersion, etc.

The collected data are converted into statistical output. This includes calculating additional indicators.

18.6. Adjustment The set of procedures employed to modify statistical data to enable it to conform to national or international standards or to address data quality differences when compiling specific data sets.

Not applicable

19. Comments Supplementary descriptive text which can be attached to data or metadata.

Not available