Census rules

I. Organisation of Population and Housing Census

   1. Population and Housing Census (hereinafter: Census) shall be conducted from 31 March to 9 April 2000 (hereinafter: time of Census). The Census moment is at 00:00 on the eve of 31 March 2000. The data collected in the Census shall relate to Census moment. 
   2. The Census is preceded by a preliminary visit and followed by a post-enumeration sample survey. 
   3. Census covers natural persons (hereinafter: persons), households and dwellings and buildings containing dwellings. Persons who live together and are linked by a common use of all available household facilities form a Hhousehold comprises persons who live together at one address and who are connected by joint housekeeping (shared budget and shared food). A person living alone is also considered a household. Relationship or kinship between household members is not necessarily required. If a person shares a dwelling with some other person but buys food himself/herself and has a separate budget, then he/she is considered a separate household. Persons staying in social welfare, health care, recreational and other institutions, in correctional and penal and other institutions institutions and in military service and who are have their meals provided for by thate institution (hereinafter: institution) shall be consideredform an institutional household. For the purposes of these instructionsCensus rules, dwelling is a family dwelling, apartment or other separate room suitable for all-the-year-round habitation. Dwelling is also every room where at the Census moment at least one person is residing permanently, regardless of whether it has been constructed as a dwelling or not (for example, dwelling may also be a storeroom, garage, trailer, etc.). 
   4. Every enumerated person covered by the Census has to determine determine his/her permanent place of residence (permanent, main, usual place of residence), from the temporary absence of which he/she can elsewhere have a temporary place of residence. The permanent place of residence is the place of residence where he/she lives permanently, regardless of whether he/she is in-registered at that place or has the right to use the dwelling. Person who has more than one place of residence should regard the place of residence, where his/her household lives, as a permanent place of residence, ; in the case of a single person it is the place where he/she spends the majority of his/her daily night-rest. If the person has difficulties in determining the permanent place of residence when choosing between the present and previous place of residence, the place should be preferred where he/she intends to live for most of the time of the year. The permanent place of residence of university students and of pupils of professional secondary or other educational institutions living in the study area is the dwelling where the studies take place (not the place of residence of parents). The permanent place of residence of persons, who have lived in an institution for more than a year or who will stay there for more than a year, is the institution. The permanent place of residence of persons in military service is the place where they departed from for military service. In the case of persons who cannot determine their permanent place of residence, the dwelling where they are enumerated is considered to be their permanent place of residence. The permanent place of residence of homeless persons is the settlement where they are enumerated. 
  5. Enumerated Persons covered by the Census comprise: 
      a) those who at the Census moment are in the Republic of Estonia, except for the personnel of diplomatic staff of foreign diplomatic diplomatic missions and consular representative postsoffices and their household members and persons in active military service of in a foreign countries army; 
      b) those whose permanent place of residence is in the Republic of Estonia but who are temporarily (for up to one year) in foreign countriesstaying abroad; 
      c) diplomatic personnel staff of diplomatic missions and consular representative offices posts of the Republic of Estonia and their household members who at the Census moment are in a foreign countrycountry at the Census moment. 
   6. Census shall cover residential buildings and other buildings used for permanent habitationhabitation, and dwellings locating dsituated in themtherein, irrespective ofregardless of whether their occupancythey are occupied or vacant at the Census moment, except for buildings of foreign diplomatic missions and consular representative officesposts, and dwellings locating in themsituated therein. 
   7. An enumeration area is the working area of an enumerator. 
   8. At the time of the preliminary visit, enumeration and post-enumeration survey, the enumerator and the supervisor of enumerators (hereinafter: supervisor) have the right to visit the people at their place of residence from 8 a.m. until 10 p.m. 
   9. Immediately after entering into the dwelling, the enumerator shall introduce himself/herself showing the document certificate of employment issued by the Statistical Office, which certifies thus proving his/her authoritysation. The enumerator introduces then the task assigned to him/her. If necessary, the enumerator shall inform the enumerated person covered by the Census of the person’s rights and obligations duties to provide data in the Census, as well as of measures, which ensure the protection of the collected personal data, and of requirements, which provide for the use of the data only for statistical purposes. 
   10. During the preliminary visit the enumerator shall visit all the buildings in his/her enumeration area where people live or could live, including, for example, summer cottages or buildings in the possession of institutions and business enterprises, which might contain dwellings. He/she shall ascertain which buildings and dwellings are covered by the Census and how many permanent residents live there. 
   11. The preliminary visit shall be carried out in four days, which also include the weekend days. The enumerator shall inform his/her supervisor of the results of the preliminary visit. 
   12. During the preliminary visit, the enumerator shall show the Census questionnaire to the inhabitants, asks them to remember all persons who will be present in that dwelling at the Census moment, and agrees on the time for enumeration suitable for residents. 
   13. If it appears from the conversation with the inhabitants that some inhabitants of the dwelling intend to leave their place of residence at the time of the Census, the enumerator shall fill in the Personal Questionnaire, which concern that person, during the preliminary visit. If at the time of the Census there will be no adult persons (i.e. at least 18-year-old) present in the dwelling, the enumerator shall fill in also the Housing Questionnaire during the preliminary visit. 
   14. During the enumeration, the enumerators shall interview permanent inhabitants of the dwelling and persons temporarily present, and shall enter the data collected during the Census in the Census questionnaires (Housing Questionnaire and Personal Questionnaire) pursuant to the Census rules. 
   15. Census questionnaires shall be completed in Estonian. 
   16. The enumerator shall allow a person who provided the data to review the data on the building and dwelling as well as personal data, which have been received from state and local government databases, before entering them into Census questionnaires. In the case of discrepancies, the enumerator shall prefer the data received from the person covered by the Census. The enumerator shall show the completed Census questionnaires to the person who provided the data to get confirmation of the correctness of the data. 
   17. When filling in the questionnaires the enumerator should observe that the answers received during the inquiry are not contradictory. In the case of contradictions, it should be specified which data are correct. The enumerator shall give the completed and verified questionnaires to his/her supervisor at the latest on the next day. 
   18. The enumerator shall give a certificate attesting enumeration to the person, who intends to leave the territory of the enumeration area of his/her permanent place of residence at the time of the Census even for one day after he/she has been enumerated. The certificate attesting enumeration shall also be issued to all those persons who are enumerated as being temporarily present as well as to persons who are enumerated at the place that is neither their permanent place of residence nor the location at the Census moment. Certificate attesting enumeration shall be issued to all persons enumerated in ports, airport terminals, railway and bus stations or to homeless persons. 
   19. If nobody is present in the dwelling at the time of the visit of the enumerator, the enumerator shall leave a notice to the inhabitants of the dwelling by which they are required to notify the supervisor of the enumerators of the supervision area by telephone or in writing of the time they will be at their place of residence during the time of the Census (i.e. until 9 April), thus enabling the enumerator to enumerate them. The notice should also be left if at the time of the visit of the enumerator some 15-year-old or older household members were not at home and the persons present could not answer all questions in the Personal Questionnaire concerning these persons. 
   20. Enumeration at frontier postsborder crossing points and in institutions shall be carried out, as a general rule, by employees of these institutions or of agencies administering these institutions. They shall also enumerate persons living permanently in the territory or dwellings of these institutions who are not included in the institutional household (for example, service staff). 
   21. Enumerators shall conduct carry out the Census in accommodation rooms, means of transport or ports, airport terminals, railway and bus stations, etc. that are in the their territorialry of their enumeration area according to the timetable harmonised co-ordinated with these institutions. 
   22. Persons who will travel to a foreign country for up to one year and who will stay be in a foreign country country at the time of the Census and at whose permanent place of residence there will be no adult household members present at the time of the Census, shall be enumerated before their departure from Estonia in co-ordinationncordance with respective agencies at the place designated by the Statistical Office. 
   23.To check verify the quality of the Census, a sample post-enumeration sample survey shall be carried outorganised. Post-enumeration survey shall take place in 14–19 April 2000 (6 days). Post-enumeration survey shall covers around 1% of dwellings. It shall be conducted carried out by supervisors. 

II Completing the Form of the Census Questionnaire “Housing Questionnaire”

24. Housing Questionnaire is filled outcompleted about all dwellings locating situated in the territory of the enumeration area of the enumerator, irrespective regardless of whether they are occupied or vacant at the Census moment, except about these accommodation rooms and rooms in institutions that were neither permanent nor temporary places of residence of any person at the Census moment. 
   25. Housing Questionnaire (with note: check verification form) shall also be filled incompleted about a dwellings locating situated outside the territory of the enumeration area of the enumerator, if when the enumerator enumerates persons in his/her enumeration area according to whom nobody will be present at their permanent place of residence residence that is outside the enumeration area of the enumerator. 
   26. If one of the permanent residents of the dwelling is the owner or tenant of the dwelling is among the permanent residents of the dwelling then preferably he/she should answer the questions concerning the dwelling. 
   27. If many households live in one dwelling, they are entered into the list of inhabitants by households. Questions concerning the dwelling (2–4, 6–9) will always be filled inrecorded about the dwelling as a whole, questions concerning the household (5, 12) are filled inrecorded separately for each household. 
   28. If nobody will be present in the dwelling at the time of the Census and the enumerator will not be able fails to contact the household, then the list of inhabitants shall not be compiled and the answers to questions 5 and 12 concerning the household shall not be filled inrecorded. In that case in order to answer the questions concerning the dwelling and building the help of registers, occupants of the building, owners of the dwelling, local governments and neighbours shall be used. If it is not possible to obtain data about the dwelling, at least the location of the dwelling and the house number shall be filled outrecorded on the map. 
   29. In institutions the first part of the Housing Questionnaire (heading, location of the dwelling and list of inhabitants) and question 1 shall be filled outfilled out by dwellingrooms (hospital rooms, etc.). 
   30. In accommodation establishments (hostels, hotels, etc.) the first part of the Housing Questionnaire and question 2 (also question 12 in exceptional case) shall be filled outfilled out by rooms. Housing Questionnaire shall also be filled outcompleted to the same extent about various rooms converted for human habitation (storeroom, mill, garage, etc.), summer cottages unsuitable for all-the-year-round habitation, caravans, trailers, boats, etc. if they are a permanent place of residence of at least one person at the Census moment. 
   31. If in the territory of the institution or accommodation establishment some personnel members live permanently with their household, their dwelling should be counted as an ordinary apartment, family-dwelling, etc. 
   32. Only the first part of the Housing Questionnaire shall be filled out in the case of homeless persons. 
   33. Each Housing Questionnaire has a unique number which is in the upper right corner of the questionnaire and which is written in Personal Questionnaires filled out in that dwelling. The supervisor shall give assign the numbers of the census district, supervision area and enumeration area to the enumerator. These three numbers determine the place of enumeration (with the accuracy of enumeration area). The one and the same combination of numbers shall be written in all census questionnaires filled out by the same enumerator. 
   34. The house number on the map shall be recorded on the basis of the map in the use of the enumerator (if the number is on the map). If the building covered by the Census is not on the map, then it has to be indicated on the map by a dot and the number of the house (recorded both on the map and in the Housing Questionnaire) will be the next number of the largest house number on the map of that settlement. Thate space for a house number shall be left empty for in the case of towns cities and townshi and other settlements where the buildings have an exact address (street and house number) and where the houses have no separate map numbers. 
   35. Note “Answered by a permanent resident” is made in case the data on dwelling are provided by an adult person living permanently in the dwelling. Otherwise the space for making the note is left empty. 
   36. Note “Verification form” is made if the dwelling covered by the Census is situated outside the territory of the enumeration area of the enumerator (see point 25 of these rules). Otherwise the space for making the note is left empty. 
   37. Note “Post-enumeration” is made in the Housing Questionnaire which is filled in during the sample post-enumeration survey. At the time of the Census the respective space for making the note is left empty. 
   38. Location of dwelling 
   Location of the dwelling is recorded by the valid administrative division. If the building has several addresses, the address shall be written where the main entrance of the building is located. If it is complicated to write down the address, the postal address of the building should be recorded. In the case of mobile dwellings (caravan, trailer, ship, boat-house) the location of the dwelling is registered with the accuracy of settlement. 
   Location of the dwelling shall be written as the postal address — at first the street, the house number and apartment number, followed by the names of the settlement, rural municipality and county.
   The name of the street (farm) shall be written out. It is possible to use the following abbreviations when writing the street names:

MNTroadPÕIKcrossroad
VsquareGÜ garage association
PL(small) squareSKcottage co-operative
TEEroadcottage association
ALLalleygardening association
PSTavenueAKgardening co-operative
farm  

In the case of a street, the abbreviation (“tn”, etc) is not used. In the case of streets named after a person, the first letter(s) of the first name(s) should be written without a full stop and the surname should be written out. A space is left instead of full stops. If there is not enough room to write such a name, then first of all the letter(s) of the first name(s) should be left out but the surname should be written out. If there are no streets in the settlement and the houses are not numbered, then the name of the farm is written here. On the other hand, if there are no streets in the settlement but the houses are numbered, the space “street (farm)”is left empty. 
   The building number is recorded in numbers. If the building number contains letters, then these are also written down, e.g. 2A, 34B. If the dwelling is situated in a separate building (auxiliary building, etc.) in the grounds of the main building but has no separate number, then the same address with the main building is registered by adding a letter (A, B, etc.). If the buildings in a gardening association, etc. have no separate addresses but each lot is numbered, then the number of the lot can be regarded as the number of the house. 
   The number of the apartment is registered in case the building contains more than one dwelling. If several dwellings (apartments) in the building have been rebuilt into one but they have not been renumbered, then all the apartment numbers of these apartments are written down, using a dash between the numbers. If dwellings have no numbers, the enumerator should number them in the questionnaire himself/herself from left to right and upwards. This kind of numbering should be applied, for example, for family dwellings that have been divided into several dwellings (containing separate kitchens, etc.). In institutions and accommodation rooms the apartment number shall be the number of the room (ward, hospital room, etc.). 
   The name of the settlement shall be written out. Villages, small towns, towns and cities are considered settlements. If within one rural municipality there are several settlements with the same name, the abbreviations are used for making distinction between them: L — city, A — town, AK — small town and K — village. In the other cases it is not necessary to use these abbreviations. In the case of some settlements it is allowed to use abbreviations. 
   The name of the rural municipality is written out. County name may be abbreviated if necessary. In the case of cities the spaces “county” and “rural municipality” are left unfilled. 
   “Dwelling missing” is registered for homeless persons. A person is considered homeless if he/she has no dwelling and spends nights in incidental basements, staircases, heating rooms, abandoned buildings, huts, shelters for the homeless, etc. The other address spaces for the homeless are filled out as precisely as possible — the name of the county, rural municipality and settlement where the person was enumerated should be written down. 
   39. List of inhabitants of the dwelling by households 
   39.1.Before compiling the list of inhabitants of the dwelling (hereinafter list), the enumerator should specify the number of households living in that dwelling. In compiling the list it has to be specified into which household the person covered by the Census belongs, who of the permanent residents were present at the Census moment, who were temporarily absent and which persons were temporarily present in the dwelling covered by the Census at the Census moment. Persons who arrive in the dwelling covered by the Census at the time of enumeration but for whom the place is neither a permanent place of residence nor the location at the Census moment are not entered in the list of inhabitants of this dwelling. 
   Homeless persons (note “dwelling missing” in the Housing Questionnaire) are also entered in the list of inhabitants. 
   39.2. Every person covered by the Census should specify his/her permanent place of residence (see the definition of the permanent place of residence in point 4), in the case of temporary absence from where he/she can elsewhere have only a temporary place of residence. 
   39.3. The list of inhabitants of the dwelling includes all persons by households who: 
      a) were in that dwelling on the eve of 31 March 2000 at 00.00, including temporary residents; 
      b) live in that dwelling permanently but who at the Census moment were temporarily absent. 
   39.4. Persons are regarded as temporarily absent from their permanent place of residence if they have been away from their permanent place of residence for less than a year and if on the eve of the 31 March 2000 at 00.00 they were: 
      a) in dwellings outside the boundaries of the local government (town or rural municipality) of their permanent place of residence due to a visit, business trip, vacation or any other short-term absence; 
      b) in dwellings outside the boundaries of the local government of their permanent place of residence in connection with working in another local government; 
      c) in hotels and other accommodation establishments, in maternity hospitals, health care, social care, recreational and other similar institutions irrespective of the location of the institution (either in the same city, rural municipality or elsewhere); 
      d) in hostels or boarding-houses of general education institutions or elsewhere outside home in connection with studies (except students in higher schools, secondary professional education and other vocational education institutions); 
      e) in military barracks and other dwellings outside home in connection with military service or training for reserve or alternative service; 
      f) in detention in a police authority or in a penal institution before trial; 
      g) imprisoned (sentence time is less than a year); 
      h) passengers on international ships, coaches, trains and aircraft, and in ports, bus and railway stations and airport terminals waiting for a distant journey to begin; 
      i) in a foreign country for a term of up to one year in connection with a visit, tour, business trip, studies or work or any other reason. Persons who departed for abroad for longer than one year are not enumerated. 
   If the persons listed in subparagraph c of this point do not have a permanent place of residence or they consider the dwelling where they were at the Census moment as their permanent place of residence, then they are regarded as the permanent residents of the location at the Census moment. 
   39.5. Persons, who at the Census moment were not in their permanent place of residence but were in another dwelling in the same city or rural municipality, who were outside the boundaries of the local government of their permanent place of residence where it was not possible to enumerate them or where the enumeration is not provided for (at work, travelling, on the way to somewhere, etc.), are not regarded as temporarily absent. These persons are enumerated as present at their permanent place of residence and no note is made regarding the temporary absence. 
   39.6. Households should be numbered in column “Household No”, i.e. each household should be assigned a different reference number within the dwelling. Persons, who are visiting another household at the Census moment and who are enumerated as temporarily present, are assigned the household number with whom they are staying. The rest of temporary inhabitants are assigned separate household numbers. 
   39.7. All persons entered into the list are already numbered in the questionnaire (column “Row No”) (this number with the unique number of the questionnaire helps to link the Housing Questionnaire with the Personal Questionnaire). 
   39.8. In the case of each household it should first be determined who could be the reference person, i.e. the person of household members whose name is written down first. Out of permanent members of the household, the reference person is either the owner or tenant (in whose name the contract of rent is made or who has an oral agreement for using the apartment) of the dwelling. If there is no such person among the permanent residents, the reference person shall be one adult household member present who is a permanent resident. In the case of an one-member household or a homeless person that person is registered as a reference person. 
   39.9. The first and surname of the reference person shall be entered first (preferably) in block letters into the list. Then the first and surnames of the reference person’s partner, children, other relatives and persons not related to the reference person are recorded. To simplify the later work, as a general rule, it is advisable to record the children, including single adult children, after their parents. When recording each person, the relationship of the person with respect to the household’s reference person should be asked. The letter denoting the appropriate variant should be chosen out of variants down on the page and recorded in the column “Relationship with the reference person” in the row of this person. 
   39.10. Person’s status in the household can be the following: 
   V — “reference person” is the person entered first into the list of household members, in the case of one-member household or a homeless person it shall be the person himself/herself; 
   E — “partner (legal spouse or partner in consensual union)” is the legal spouse or partner in consensual union of the reference person (see points 39.14 and 39.15); 
   L — “son or daughter of the reference person or his/her partner” shall be recorded for those household members who are the children of the reference person and/or his/her partner (including adopted children, excluding stepchildren); 
   P — “parent (or parent’s partner) of the reference person or his/her partner” shall be recorded for the reference person’s or his/her partner’s mother or father and his/her partner; 
   W — “grandparent of the reference person or his/her partner” shall be recorded for the reference person’s or his/her partner’s grandmother or grandfather and his/her partner; 
   T — “grandchild of the reference person or his/her partner” shall be recorded for the reference person’s or his/her partner’s grandchild and his/her partner; 
   S — “other relative of the reference person or his/her partner” shall be recorded for those household members who are the relatives of or have kinship relations with the reference person or his/her partner but who do not fall under the above-mentioned groups. The relatives of the partner have kinship relations with his/her partner and his/her relatives. Kinship relations do not end with the termination of the marriage that has brought about these relations. The partners of children and grandchildren shall also be recorded as relatives; 
   X — “person who is not a relative of the reference person or his/her partner” shall be recorded for those persons who are not the relatives of or have no kinship relations with the reference person or his/her partner. 
   39.11. After all the household members have been entered into the list, the names should be read aloud to all those present in the room and asked if all persons who had stayed there on the eve of 31 March 2000 had been recorded. If some other name is mentioned it should also be entered into the list. Then it should be asked once more if there was any other household member who had not been mentioned and who was not in the dwelling on the eve of 31 March 2000 but who usually lives in that household but was absent at that time in connection with work, studies or travel or for any other reason (on a tour, visiting someone, at the hospital, under trial, etc.). The list should be complemented if necessary. This procedure is applied in the case of every household to be entered into the list. 
   39.12. The reference person shall not be chosen in the case of temporary inhabitants in accommodation rooms and institutions, and correspondingly the relationship with the reference person is not recorded and the order of entering persons into the list is insignificant. If partners or mother/father with child(ren) live in the same dwelling, the relationship is recorded in the respective columns (“Row No of the legal spouse” etc.). In institutions the reference person is chosen and the relationship with the reference person is recorded only if the accommodation establishment is the permanent place of residence of the household. 
   39.13. Now the spaces for the “Row No of the legal spouse”, “Row No of the partner in consensual union”, “Row No of mother” and “Row No of father” (if corresponding persons are in the list of household members) are filled with numbers from the column “Row No”. 
   39.14. The number of the row designating the reference person’s partner is entered into the column “Row No of the legal spouse” if the reference person has a partner in the household who he/she is legally married to. 
   A person whose marriage has legal effect (in Estonia: marriage has legal effect only if the marriage is registered at a vital statistics office upon contraction of the marriage) is considered legally married. Here only marriages contracted between a man and a woman are taken into account. If a person does not have a legal spouse or he/she does not live in the same household with him/her, the space for making the respective entry should be left empty. 
   39.15. The number of the row designating the reference person’s partner is entered into the column “Row No of the partner in consensual union” if the reference person has a partner in the household who he/she is legally not married to. 
   A person, who is not legally married but who in his/her opinion has a marriage relationship and who has a common permanent place of residence with his/her partner, is considered to be in consensual union. 
   39.16. The number of the mother’s row is entered into the column “Row No of mother” if the person’s mother is the member of the same household (including cases when the person has been adopted). A woman, who is the partner of the child’s father but has not given birth to or adopted that child, is not considered to be the child’s mother. 
   39.17. The number of the father’s row is entered into the column “Row No of father” if the person’s father is the member of the same household (including cases when the person has been adopted). A man, who is the partner of the child’s mother but is not a legal father of that child, is not considered to be the child’s father. 
   39.18. “Temporarily absent” shall be recorded for persons who at the Census moment were temporarily absent but for whom the dwelling, where the Housing Questionnaire is filled in, is a permanent place of residence. 
   39.19. “Temporarily present” shall be recorded for persons who do not consider the dwelling where they stayed at the Census moment as their permanent place of residence and who have a permanent place of residence elsewhere (they are temporarily absent from their permanent place of residence). 
   39.20. Into the last column “Duration in months”, the time period of the person’s temporary absence or temporary presence (i.e. the period from the person’s departure/arrival until the Census moment) shall be recorded in months. If that time is shorter than one month, 1 (one) shall be written. In the case of pupils of general education institutions who are considered household members in their parents’ place of residence but who study elsewhere, the duration of absence shall be counted since the beginning of the school year. 
   39.21. If there is not enough room in the list of inhabitants of the dwelling then a new Housing Questionnaire with the next number should be taken and continued with numbering of the inhabitants from where it stopped in the previous one. The printed row numbers should be crossed out in the new Housing Questionnaire and new numbers should be written instead. The unique number of the first Housing Questionnaire (it shall be written above the unique number of the new questionnaire), heading (numbers of the Census district, supervision area and enumeration area, and house number on the map), location of dwelling and continuation of the list of inhabitants of the Housing Questionnaire should be written in the new Housing Questionnaire. 
   39.22. If more than three households live permanently in the dwelling, a new Housing Questionnaire should also be taken and the fourth (if necessary, also the fifth and the sixth) household should be entered into the list. The printed row numbers should also be crossed out in the new Housing Questionnaire and new numbers (starting from 14) should be written instead. In addition to the unique number, heading and location of dwelling of the first Housing Questionnaire, answers to questions 5 and 12 are to be taken down separately for each household. Questions concerning the dwelling and building are not filled out in the new Housing Questionnaire. 
   40. Question 1
   Type of institution
   One of the given answers is recorded. 
   Type of institution is recorded only in the case of an institutional household. The enumerator registers the answer on the basis of the information previously available or according to the statement of the head of the institution. This question shall not be asked separately from every inhabitant of the institution. Institutional household consists of persons who permanently or temporarily live in an institution which operates twenty-four hours a day and maintains them (provides food, housing, care, if necessary), while the ownership and sources of funds are insignificant. These include boarding-houses of special schools (in Tapa, Puiatu, Kaagvere, Viljandi special vocational school), children’s homes (including SOS villages for children, youth homes), residential educational institutions, general care homes, special care homes, mixed care social welfare institutions, hospitals, medical rehabilitation centres, penal institutions, refugee camps, military barracks, convents, monasteries, etc. If there is only one person temporarily present in the institution, he/she is still considered an institutional household. Service staff of an institution is not included in the institutional household. 
   Institutions are divided in this questionnaire as follows: 
      a) educational institution (closed boarding-houses at special schools where children are maintained by the institution); 
      b) health care institution (hospitals, medical rehabilitation centres, etc.); 
      c) social welfare institution (children’s homes, youth homes, residential educational institutions, general care homes, special care homes, etc.); 
      d) military institution (barracks, etc.); 
      e) religious institution (convents, monasteries, etc.); 
      f) other institution (penal institutions, refugee camps, etc.). 
   41. In the case of an institution, the filling-in of the questionnaire ends (questions 2–12 are not filled). 
   42. Question 2
   Type of dwelling
   One of the given answers is recorded. The type of dwelling does not depend on the number of households living there. 
   Residential building is a building 50% or more of the area of which is used for permanent habitation. Summer and hunting cottages, sports and tourist centres, motels, camping grounds, rest homes, boarding houses, hostels, hotels and other accommodation buildings, which are meant for recreation or temporary habitation, as well as institutions (hospitals, children’s homes, military barracks, penal institutions, etc.) are not considered to be residential buildings. 
   “One-family dwelling” is recorded if a small residential building (including farmhouse, row houses or former summer cottage that has been rebuilt for all-the-year-round habitation) comprises one dwelling. 
   “Part of the family dwelling” is recorded if the family dwelling is divided into several dwellings (with separate entrances and secondary rooms or only separate kitchens). 
“Apartment” is recorded for dwellings (with secondary rooms) that are entirely isolated from other dwellings and allow running a household. Kitchenettes and dwellings provided by the employer are also regarded as apartments. 
   “Separate living room(s)” is recorded for isolated rooms in hostel-type houses that are currently not used as accommodation rooms. 
   “Accommodation room” is recorded if the household lives in a room at the hostel, hotel, camping grounds, motel, boarding house, sports and recreation centre, rest home, guesthouse, tourism farm, etc. that, in principle, is meant for temporary use (the household has no property right). 
   “Non-dwelling used for habitation” is recorded in all the other cases. These comprise miscellaneous rooms converted for human habitation (storage, mill, garage, etc.), summer cottages that are not suitable for all-the-year-round habitation, caravans, trailers, boathouses, ships, if at the Census moment at least one household was living there. 
   These do not include accommodation rooms for passengers on board the ships or in train compartments, these are not regarded as dwellings. 
In the case of an answer “accommodation room” or “non-dwelling used for habitation”, it is continued with question 12 (questions 3–11 are not filled out). 
   43. Question 3
   Occupancy of the dwelling
   One of the given answers is recorded. 
   Decisions concerning the occupancy of the dwelling cannot be made only on the basis of the data of registers. 
   Dwelling is occupied if at the Census moment it is a permanent place of residence of at least one person. 
   Dwelling is reserved for temporary or seasonal use if at the Census moment it is not a permanent place of residence of any person but temporary inhabitants live there or the owner has reserved it for seasonal or secondary use. 
   Dwelling is vacant if at the Census moment it is not a permanent place of residence of any person and it is not reserved. Only these vacant dwellings are counted that are suitable for all-the-year-round use. 
   The occupancy of the dwelling is unknown if the enumerator cannot get into the dwelling and will not receive data about the occupancy of the dwelling. 
   44. Question 4
   Owner of the dwelling
   One of the given answers is recorded. The owner of the dwelling should be recorded. It is insignificant who manages or maintains the building (real estate firm, commercial undertaking, private limited company for house maintenance, etc.). 
   “State” is recorded in the case of a dwelling that is owned by a state agency or national organisation (fund). 
   “Local government” is recorded in the case of a dwelling that is owned by a city (city district) or rural municipality. 
   “Person residing in Estonia” is recorded in case the permanent place of residence of the owner of the dwelling is in Estonia. In the case of this and the following answer, the citizenship of the person and whether the dwelling has one or many owners (as a general rule it comes out from question 5) is insignificant. 
   “Person residing in a foreign country” is recorded in case the permanent place of residence of the owner of the dwelling is outside of the Republic of Estonia. 
   “Dwelling association” is recorded in case the owner of the dwelling is a dwelling association (dwelling co-operative). Member of the dwelling association who is an owner of the dwelling is not taken into account here. 
   “Other” is recorded in case the owner of the dwelling is, for example, a commercial undertaking, church or any other non-profit institution, foundation, etc. 
   “Unknown” is recorded in case the owner of the dwelling cannot be determined. 
   45. Question 5
   Is the member of your household dwelling’s…
   Answer to this question shall be recorded separately for each household of the dwelling. 
   “Owner” is recorded in case the main user of the dwelling is the household, one member of which is its owner. 
   “Member of dwelling association” is recorded in case at least one of the users of the dwelling is the member of the dwelling association (dwelling co-operative). Members of apartment associations are not recorded here, as they are the owners of the dwelling. 
   “Tenant” is recorded in case the household has a contract of tenancy for using the dwelling or any other basis provided by law. 
   “Other” is recorded in case any kind of basis for using the dwelling is missing (for example, unauthorised occupation of the dwelling) or the basis for the use cannot be determined. 
   46. Question 5 is closely connected with question 4. For example, if the owner is the state or local government, the user can be a tenant or other; but if the owner is a person residing in Estonia or in a foreign country, the user can be an owner, tenant or other; etc. 
   47. Question 6
   Total area of the dwelling
   The total area of the dwelling is the total floor area of rooms and secondary rooms (kitchen, hall, toilet, pantry, interspace, bathroom, storage room, veranda, built-in cupboards). The area of balconies and terraces (i.e. open spaces) is not included in the total area of the dwelling. However, if the balcony or terrace is rebuilt into a closed and heat-insulated area, their area is included in the total area of the dwelling. The area of cellars, garages (including in family dwellings) and public rooms (staircases, corridors, rest rooms, saunas, laundry rooms) is not included in the total area of dwellings in apartment buildings. In principle, the total area of the dwelling coincides with the term that was used earlier — the useful space of the apartment. In the case of an uncompleted building (question 11) the approximate useful total area is determined. 
   The total area of the dwelling is rounded up with the accuracy of a square metre (31.4 = 31 square metres, 31.5 = 32 square metres). 
   48. Question 7
   Number of rooms in the dwelling
   Rooms are a living room, bedroom, nursery, study, attic, dining room, etc. If a permanent wall between a dining room and a kitchen is missing (for example, it has been torn down) the kitchen is regarded as part of the room. Kitchen, entrance hall, toilet, bathroom, pantry, sauna rooms and other secondary rooms are not counted as rooms. Kitchenette and a room in a building of a hostel type (if the room is used separately as a dwelling) are counted as rooms. Attics, heat-insulated terraces, etc. that have been reconstructed and are suitable for all-the-year-round habitation all count as rooms. Rooms that are used only for business or work purposes do not count as rooms. 
   49. Question 8
   Is there a kitchen in the dwelling?
   One of the given answers is recorded. 
   A kitchen is a room of at least 4 square metres or 2 metres wide that has been equipped for the preparation of meals and, as a general rule, it also has a window. 
   “Yes” is recorded in case a permanent wall separates the kitchen in the dwelling. 
   “Kitchenette” is recorded in case part of a room is equipped for the preparation of meals (for example, an oven in a kitchenette; a (windowless) niche of less than 4 square metres with a contemporary stove and sink; the wall between a living room and a kitchen is missing (for example, it has been torn down). 
   “Missing” is recorded in all the other cases. 
   50. Question 9
If the dwelling is equipped with some type of facilities (comfort characteristics) but it has been switched off due to an emergency, at the request made by inhabitants or because the inhabitants are unable to pay for the service, it is still regarded as available. However, if these facilities have been switched off for a longer time (one year and longer) because of the termination of supplying them with energy (for example, the boiler house of the former co-operative in the central settlement is no longer operating), then this type of facility is missing (the answer shall be “no”). 
   Dwelling is equipped with … 

Water supply system“yes” is recorded in case cold water comes into the dwelling through pipes from an external central network and water tap is used.
Sewage disposal system“yes” is recorded in case wastewater and faeces empty into a piped system connected to a public central or a local sewage disposal system or septic tank.
Hot water“yes” is recorded in case it is received through the hot water tap in the dwelling. Whether hot water is received from an external network or from the boiler in the dwelling is insignificant.
Bath (shower)“yes” is recorded in case the dwelling is equipped with a fixed bath or shower that is connected to a sewage disposal system. The way receiving hot water is insignificant. There can be a bath (shower) only if the dwelling is connected to a sewage disposal system.
Sauna“yes” is recorded in case sauna has been built into the apartment, family dwelling or any other small residential building, also in case sauna is in separate building in the grounds of the family dwelling or of any other small residential building (i.e. outside the dwelling).
Flush toilet“yes” is recorded in case faeces go into a sewage disposal system with the water coming from a water supply system. Flush toilet cannot be available if a water supply system and a sewage disposal system are missing.
Electricity“yes” is recorded in case the dwelling is connected to a permanent source of electrical energy twenty-four hours a day.
Gas“yes” is recorded in the case of the availability of either network or liquid gas (cylinder), irrespective of its way of use. In a corridor type of houses where the kitchen is shared by several families, all the dwellings (rooms) are regarded as equipped with gas in case there are gas ovens in the kitchen.
Central heating“yes” is recorded in case the dwelling is heated through a heat supply pipeline either from a central or a local boiler house, also in the case of the use of a gas heater or a small boiler working with gas or solid fuel. There can be several heating systems in the dwelling at the same time (central heating, electric heating, stove heating); “yes” is recorded in case the central heating is the main (mostly used) heating system.
Electric heating“yes” is recorded in case electric heating equipment (electric heaters) are used in the dwelling and it is the main heating system.

In all the other cases, if the above-mentioned conditions are not fulfilled, the answer “no” is recorded. 
   51. Questions 10 and 11 concerning the building are filled in once about each building; in the case of a building containing many dwellings the answer is recorded preferably in the Housing Questionnaire of the first dwelling (apartment 1). 
   Questions are answered only in the case of these buildings where the type of dwellings in question 2 was either the family dwelling, part of the family dwelling, apartment or separate living room(s). 
   52. Question 10
   Type of building
   One of the given answers is recorded. 
   Building is a construction permanently connected to the ground, enclosed within external walls, covered by a roof and containing rooms. 
   52.1. Apartment building consists of at least three apartments that generally have an entrance in a common entrance hall, corridor or staircase. These are usually multi-storey residential buildings. As an exception, also one-storey apartment buildings are included here  ordinary barracks and other similar buildings. Also family dwellings containing three or more dwellings (apartments) with separate entrances are included here. 
  52.2 Family dwelling is a residential building originally designed and built for one family where also many households may live and which is not divided into apartments. Also farmhouses (including farmhouses containing a barn) and former summer cottages arranged for all-the-year-round habitation are included here. 
  If the family dwelling has been rebuilt into two isolated apartments, the answer “other small residential building” is recorded, but in case it has been rebuilt into three or more apartments (isolated), the answer “apartment building” is recorded. 
  52.3. Other small residential building is: 
     a)  a semi-detached residential building, which consists of two family dwellings situated in two neighbouring grounds and built together by their sides (as an exception also a residential building with two entrances locating in the same grounds — two-family dwelling);
     b)  a row house which consists of at least three family dwellings (one housing unit of a row house) with separate entrances and connected with one another by a fire wall or a roof;
     c)  a family dwelling with two apartments built inside of it.
  52.4. Non-residential building with dwelling(s) is a building, approximately less than 50% of the useful area of which is used for habitation. 
  52.5. “Accommodation building” (hostel, hotel, camping grounds, motel, boarding house, sports and recreation centre, rest home, guest house, tourism farm, etc.) is recorded if t contains an apartment or separate room(s). 
  52.6. “Other building” is 
    a)  a summer cottage which at the Census moment is a permanent place of residence
of at least one person;
    b)  a building converted for human habitation (sauna, stables, mill, garage, warehouse, etc.).
  “Other building” is recorded only in case it contains a dwelling (the type of dwelling is an apartment or separate room(s)) which is used by at least one household as a permanent place of residence. 
  52.7. Mobile dwellings (trailer, ship, etc.) are not counted as buildings. 
  53.Question 11
  Construction time of building
  One of the given answers is recorded. 
  In recording the construction time of building the period is referred to, which includes the year of official completion of the building (taken into exploitation). The data can be received, in addition to asking from the inhabitants, also from the owner of the building or from registers. If buildings have undergone reconstruction, extension, etc. still the period containing the year of first completion of the building should be recorded as the construction time of the building. 
  “Uncompleted building” is recorded in the case of a building some rooms of which are already used for permanent habitation although the local government has not given the permission to use it. 
If the inhabitants do not know the time of construction of the building and the respective data are also missing in the register, etc. the answer “unknown” should be recorded. 
  54 Question 12
  Does your household use directly any land for growing field crops or horticultural products, or any natural grassland, woodland or farm animals?
  The answer to this question is recorded only in the Housing Questionnaire of the permanent place of residence. If several households live in the dwelling, the answer is recorded separately for each household. 
  54.1 “Yes” is recorded if the household uses, in compliance with the property law, lease contract or any other such basis,:

  1. agricultural land where field crops or horticultural products are grown for own use and for sale, fodder (hay) is mowed and livestock is pastured or
  2. woodland or
  3. farm animals, poultry or bees.

It is insignificant whether the household uses one or several land properties in different places. 
  54.2 “No” is recorded if:

  1. the household uses approximately up to 50 square metres (e.g. 5 × 10 metres) of land for growing vegetables, up to 3 (incl.) fruit trees or up to 5 berry bushes;
  2. the household has up to 10 rabbits, domestic fowls or up to 3 beehives, but the household does not keep cows, pigs, sheep, goats and horses and the area of land used is up to 50 square metres;
  3. the household has rented out all of its agricultural land, woodland and animals or given it for the use to another person under some other similar contract;
  4. the household uses no land and keeps no animals.

III Completing the Form of the Census Questionnaire “Personal Questionnaire” 

55. Personal Questionnaire is filled in about all persons entered into the list of inhabitants of the dwelling. About persons who have received a certificate of enumeration, only questions 1–7 shall be filled out.
  56. In addition to that the Personal Questionnaire shall be filled in about persons whom the enumerator encounters in the dwelling covered by the Census, but for whom this place is neither a permanent place of residence nor the location at the Census moment in case these persons do not have a certificate attesting enumeration. Personal Questionnaire shall not be filled in about persons who are on a brief visit in the local government of their permanent place of residence but who return to their place of residence during the Census.
  57. Each 15-year-old and older person present shall himself/herself provide data concerning his/her person. To ensure the correctness of the data, the person covered by the Census may show an identification document to the enumerator. Data concerning under 15-year-old children shall be provided by one of the parents, guardian of the minor or any other adult member of the household.
  58. Adult household members present shall provide data concerning persons absent at the time of the visit of the enumerator in case they can give exhaustive answers to all the questions in the questionnaire. If the household members present do not know all the required data concerning the person absent and the person absent will return into the dwelling covered by the Census during the time of the Census, the enumerator should write down the first name and surname of the person absent in the Personal Questionnaire and ask him/her questions himself/herself on the next visit(s). If the person absent is not going to return into the dwelling covered by the Census during the time of the Census, the answers to those questions shall be recorded which the persons present know.
  59. If no persons will be in the dwelling at the time of the Census, the Personal Questionnaires may be filled on the basis of registers only in case the data of the register is verified from trustworthy sources. In that case at least questions 1–6 should be filled out completely.
  60. About persons whose permanent place of residence is outside of Estonia and who have lived in Estonia for less than one year, questions 1–8 shall be filled in the Personal Questionnaire.
  61. The numbers of the Census district, supervision area and enumeration area shall be the same as in the Housing Questionnaire.
  62. Place of enumeration shall be the place (dwelling) where the Personal Questionnaire is filled in. The number of the Housing Questionnaire of the place of enumeration shall be the unique number of the Housing Questionnaire filled in about the dwelling of the place of enumeration. This number should be definitely recorded also if the person has not been entered into the list of inhabitants of the dwelling (this dwelling is neither the permanent place of residence nor the location of the person at the Census moment). If there are more than 13 persons or more than three households in the dwelling and an additional Housing Questionnaire was taken, then the unique number of the first Housing Questionnaire is recorded as the “Housing Questionnaire No of the place of enumeration” in all the Personal Questionnaires filled in that dwelling. The number of the Housing Questionnaire of the place of enumeration (with the row number) establishes a connection between the person and the dwelling of the place of enumeration. The row number shall be the row number of the person in the above-mentioned list of inhabitants of the dwelling. If the person observed is such as not to be entered into the list of inhabitants of the dwelling (he/she has arrived in the dwelling, which is not his/her permanent place of residence, only after the Census moment but he/she is subject to enumeration), the space “Row No “ shall be left empty.
  63. Note “Post-enumeration” is made in the Personal Questionnaire that is filled in during the post-enumeration sample survey.
  64. Note “Answers personally” (above the space for the personal identification code) shall be made in case the data are received from a 15-year-old or older person or his/her guardian. The note shall be made in the case of an under 15-year-old child if the data are provided by his/her parent or guardian.
  65. Questions 1 and 2
  First name, surname
  First and surname — all the first and surnames are recorded as written in documents (e.g. passport, birth certificate). If there is not enough room to record all the first names, the name is written that the person most often uses in everyday life (except nicknames). 
  At least surname is written for a newborn baby. If the first name is known for certain, it shall be recorded although the official basis is missing. In the contrary case, NEWBORN BABY is written in the space for first names. 
  66. Question 3
  Sex
  Sex shall be recorded for each person. Usually the sex can be identified by the name, appearance or relationship to the reference person. In the case of a slightest doubt, question regarding the sex should be asked. 
  67. Question 4
  Date of birth
  Birth date, month and year (DD, MM, YYYY) is recorded for each person. 
  68. Question 5
  Personal identification code
  Personal identification code of 11 digits is recorded for all persons who have a personal identification code issued in the Republic of Estonia. Personal identification code of foreign countries is not recorded. 
  69. Question 6
  Permanent place of residence
  There are four different possibilities to answer this question, ONE of the variants is recorded.   Variant a: if the enumerated person considers the dwelling where the Personal Questionnaire is filled in (place of enumeration) as his/her permanent place of residence, the note “In the dwelling of the place of enumeration” is made and it is then continued with question 7. This answer is also recorded for homeless persons. 
  Variant b: in the dwelling that is outside the enumeration area of the place of enumeration and where nobody is present at the time of the Census. 
  If the person is interviewed elsewhere than his/her permanent place of residence and he/she asserts that nobody is present at his/her permanent place of residence at the time of the Census and a Housing Questionnaire (verification form) is filled in about that dwelling, the unique number of that verification form is written in the space for “Housing Questionnaire No of the permanent place of residence”. The person’s row number from the list of inhabitants of the dwelling is written in the space “Row No”. It is then continued with question 7. 
  Variant c: is filled in the case of the dwelling locating outside the enumeration area of the place of enumeration where somebody is present at the time of the Census. If the person is temporarily at the place of enumeration and the Housing Questionnaire about his/her permanent place of residence is not filled out at the place of enumeration, the exact address of his/her permanent place of residence is recorded according to the valid administrative division (see point 38 of these Census rules). It is then continued with question 7. 
  Variant d: country is recorded for a person living in a foreign country. If the person’s permanent place of residence is outside of Estonia, the name of the country of his/her place of residence is written and it is then continued with question 7. The name of the country shall be written in accordance with the present state boundary. It is sufficient, when writing the name of the country, to write LATVIA instead of the Republic of Latvia, GERMANY instead of Federal Republic of Germany, etc. 
  70. Question 7
  Where were you during the eve of 31 March this year?
  The location of the person at midnight (at 00.00 a.m.) on the eve of 31 March 2000 is recorded. 
  There are four different possibilities to answer this question, ONE of the variants is recorded.   Variant a: note “At permanent place of residence” is recorded when the person is at his/her permanent place of residence at the Census moment, and also in the other cases when the person should be entered into the list of inhabitants at his/her permanent place of residence as present (without the note about temporary absence). It is then continued with question 8. 
  Variant b: if the conditions necessary for making the note “At the permanent place of residence” are not fulfilled and at the Census moment the person is in the dwelling where the Housing Questionnaire concerned is filled in (at the place of enumeration) but it is not his/her permanent place of residence, the note “In the dwelling of the place of enumeration which is not a permanent place of residence” is made and it is then continued with question 8. 
  Variant c: is recorded for a person who was at the place that is neither his/her permanent place of residence nor the place of enumeration. If at the Census moment the person was outside the local government of his/her permanent place of residence in some dwelling which is not his/her place of enumeration (not the dwelling where Personal Questionnaire is filled in about him/her), the exact address of the dwelling where he/she was at the Census moment is recorded (see point 38 of these Census rules) and it is then continued with question 8. 
  Variant d: for a person who stayed in a foreign country record the country. If the person was outside of Estonia at the Census moment, the name of the country where he/she was staying is recorded (see point 69 (d) of these Census rules) and it is then continued with question 8. 
  71. Question 8
  What is your citizenship?
  The country, of which he/she is a national, is recorded. If the person has several citizenships, it is possible to record up to two countries. If the person has Estonian citizenship, then this is definitely recorded; the second citizenship is recorded only in case the person has the respective passport. 
  “Undetermined” is recorded for a person who has an “aliens passport” where the name of the country in the space for “present citizenship” is missing. “Undetermined” is also recorded if the person asserts that he/she has not received the document and does not know his/her citizenship. 
  If the person has a document of a stateless person issued by a foreign country, then in case such a document is shown, STATELESS is written in the first space for “other citizenship” (a very rare occasion). 
  For children, who have a passport or certificate of citizenship, the citizenship is recorded according to this document. In the case of other children, the following shall be the basis when determining the citizenship of the child: 
    a) the child is an Estonian citizen if at least one of his/her parents was an Estonian citizen at the time of the birth of the child (if father died before that, then at the time of death of father). The parent could acquire Estonian citizenship by birth or could have been naturalised by the Decision of the Government of the Republic. The parent whose forefathers were born before 17 June 1940 has Estonian citizenship by birth. 
  If the parent acquired Estonian citizenship according to the procedure of naturalisation after the child was born, the child is not an Estonian citizen after this parent; 
    b) child is a citizen of the (existing) foreign country if the parent is a citizen of this foreign country and the child is not the Estonian citizen on the basis of the other parent;
    c) in the remaining cases the child’s citizenship is undetermined.
  72. Question 9
  Where was your permanent place of residence on 12 January 1989?
  Answered by a person born on 11 January 1989 or before that date. 
  The place of residence of the person at the time of the previous Census is recorded (according to the present administrative division). For persons who were in penal institutions at that time, the place where the penal institution was situated shall be regarded as the permanent place of residence. The place of residence of persons who studied in a higher school, in institutions of professional secondary education or vocational education shall be the place of residence at the time of studies. The permanent place of residence of persons who were in military service shall be the place of residence from where they departed for military service. 
  There are three different possibilities for recording this answer, ONE of the given answers is recorded. 
  Variant a: if a person lived in the same settlement at the time of the previous Census where his/her present permanent place of residence is now situated, the note “In the same settlement where the present permanent place of residence is located” is made and it is then continued with question 10. It should also be considered that the place of residence does not change as a result of changes made in the name of the settlement. The intermediate absence from the settlement shall not be taken into account if the person has returned to the settlement where he/she used to live on 12 January 1989. 
  Variant b: If the permanent place of residence of a person was in a different settlement on 12 January 1989, it shall be recorded as precisely as possible according to the valid administrative division (see point 38 of these Census rules). If the person covered by the Census does not know this information (for example, the name of the village or rural municipality has changed meanwhile), then the place of residence is recorded according to the previous administrative division and it is then continued with question 10. 
  Variant c: for a person who lived abroad, the country should be recorded. If the person’s permanent place of residence was outside the boundaries of the present Republic of Estonia on 12 January 1989, only the name of the country is recorded where the person’s permanent place of residence was (see point 69 (d) of these Census rules) and it is then continued with question 10. 
  73. Question 10
  Place of birth (mother’s place of residence at the time the person was born)
  Mother’s (permanent) place of residence at the time the person was born is regarded as the place of birth not the location of the maternity hospital. The place of birth is recorded according to the valid administrative division. 
  There are three different possibilities for recording this answer; ONE of the given answers is recorded. 
  Variant a: if the person was born in the same settlement where his/her present permanent place of residence is, a note “In the same settlement where the present permanent place of residence is located” is recorded and it is then continued with question 11. 
  Variant b: if the person’s place of birth and the present permanent place of residence do not coincide, then for persons who were born in Estonia, the names of the settlement, rural municipality and county of the place of birth is recorded according to the present administrative division (see point 38 of these Census rules) and it is then continued with question 11. If the person cannot give an answer according to the present administrative division, the place of birth shall be recorded according to the previous administrative division. 
  Variant c: for a person who was born abroad, the country should be recorded. The country of birth is recorded according to national boundaries at present in force (see point 69 (d) of these Census rules) and also the year of his/her arrival in Estonia is taken down. If the person has arrived to live in Estonia more than once, the year of the last arrival is written. It is then continued with question 11. 
  74. Question 11
  Place of birth of parents
  One variant of answers is recorded. The countries of birth of parents are recorded according to national boundaries at present in force (see point 69 (d) of these Census rules). If the person cannot name the country of birth of his/her mother or father, “unknown” is recorded. 
  75. Question 12
  What is your ethnic nationality?
  One variant of answers is recorded. The ethnic nationality named by the person himself/herself is recorded. The person has the right to consider himself/herself to be a member of that ethnic nationality who he/she feels to be most closely connected to ethnically and culturally. Parents shall determine the ethnic nationality of their children. If the child’s mother and father are of different ethnic nationalities and the parents have difficulties in determining the ethnic nationality of their child, the ethnic nationality of the mother should be preferred. 
  76. Question 13
  What is your mother tongue?
  One variant of answers is recorded. The language which was the first language spoken in early childhood and which is usually the language that the person commands best is recorded. Person’s mother tongue should not necessarily coincide with his/her ethnic nationality. Parents shall tell the mother tongue of their babies / small children. If parents have difficulties in determining the child’s mother tongue, the language most currently spoken in the household is recorded. For deaf-mutes the language they read and write or which is spoken by their household members or persons with whom they communicate most often is recorded as their mother tongue. Mentally disabled non-speaking persons are also treated as deaf-mutes. 
  77. Questions 14
  What other languages do you speak?
  Answering is voluntary. Language(s) different from the mother tongue which the person can read, write or speak is (are) recorded. Person is considered to have a command of the language if his knowledge of the designated language enables him/her to cope in familiar situations of language use in reading, writing or speaking (also listening). The ability to express oneself in familiar everyday communication situations, to understand a clear talk on everyday topics, to understand an overall content of a simple text and to compile short texts on everyday life (short notices, filling out a document or form) is considered a sufficient level of knowledge of the language in order to answer in affirmative. If some ability is missing but another one is significantly exceeding the said requirements, then the answer could still be “yes”. For example, a person can be considered as knowing the language if he/she: 

    a) speaks quite fluently but cannot write or
      b) can read special literature in foreign language but cannot speak it or
      c)  understands radio/television programmes in foreign languages but cannot speak or write.
  “Native language” is recorded in case the person has a command of that language but he/she has not told it to be his/her mother tongue. If the native language coincides with one of the languages designated in the questionnaire, the note “native language” is made. If the person knows a language(s) that is (are) not on the list, a note “other language” is made. For persons who speak no other languages but their mother tongue, “no command of other languages” is recorded. 
  78. Question 15
  What is your legal marital status?
  Answered by a 15-year-old or older person (born on or before 30 March 1985). 
  By this question only the person’s legal marital status is inquired about, the de facto marital status appears from the list of inhabitants of the Housing Questionnaire. 
  “Never married” is recorded for persons who have never been legally married. 
  “Legally married” is recorded for persons whose marriage is legal and has not terminated upon the death of a spouse or upon divorce. Person is also legally married if he does not live with his spouse but the divorce has not yet been finally formalised. Marriage is legal if it is contracted between a man and a woman. In compliance with the Estonian Family Law Act, marriage is contracted between a man and a woman and a marriage has legal effect only if the marriage is registered at a vital statistics office upon contraction of the marriage. 
  “Divorced” is recorded for persons whose previous legal marriage terminated upon divorce and who have not entered again into a legal marriage. 
  “Widowed” is recorded for persons whose previous legal marriage terminated upon the death of their spouse and who have not entered again into a legal marriage. 
  79. Questions 16 and 17 are answered by a 15-year-old and older woman (born on or before 30 March 1985).
  80. Question 16
  How many children have you given birth to?
  The total number of children born alive (excluding stillbirths) is recorded for all a 15-year-old and older women (both married and unmarried). The total number of live-born children includes all children born to a woman in her lifetime until the date of the Census (31 March 2000 at 00.00 a.m.), regardless of whether they are living or dead at the time of the Census. Adopted children and stepchildren are not taken into account. The answer is recorded in numbers (e.g. 1, 2, 3, etc.). In the case of a woman who has not given birth, 0 is recorded. An answer is also recorded in the case of an under 15-year-old person when it appears in the interview that she has had children. 
  81. Question 17
  Answered by a woman who has had children. 
  When was your first child born?
  The question is asked from a woman who has had children judging from the question 16. The year of birth of the firstborn child is recorded. 
  82. Question 18
  Have you any long-term illness or disability, which has been determined by the medical commission of experts and has lasted and probably will last for one year or longer?
  If “yes”, then: Is this the reason why … 

  1. you need assistance in taking care of yourself?
  2. you need assistance in moving around outside your home?

“Yes” is recorded in the case of persons who at present suffer from some long-term illness or disability which has lasted (or probably will last) for at least one year and which has been determined by the medical commission of experts. 
  “No” is recorded in all the other cases. In the case of a disability, the person shall be asked if he/she needs assistance in coping; if he/she does, then one or both given answers should be recorded. 
  “You need assistance in taking care of yourself” is recorded if the person needs permanent help in everyday life (when eating, bathing, dressing, using the toilet, etc.). 
  “You need assistance in moving around outside your home” is recorded if the person cannot go out by himself/herself, e.g. to a shop or to see a doctor. 
  Assistance means only the help provided by other persons not technical aids (wheelchair, crutches, etc.). In the case of children only the restrictions on activities, which they should be capable of performing at that age and which have been imposed by disability, are recorded. 
  83. Question 19
  What were your main sources of subsistence in the last 12 months?
  Indicate the most relevant source of subsistence in the first column and, if necessary, indicate the second relevant source in the second column. 
  Up to two answers should be recorded in columns I and II, respectively (the first and the second). The main source of subsistence is money or other income (in kind: food, clothes, accommodation, housing, fuel, etc.) received which is significant with respect to coping of the person. All persons have (at least one) source of subsistence. As a general rule, the main source of subsistence of the last 12 months should be recorded here. If a relevant change, regarding the source of subsistence, has taken place recently and it will probably last for a longer time (the person retired, took on a permanent job, stayed on maternity leave, started service in the armed forces, etc.), then the main source of subsistence should be the recently most relevant one for the person that will probably remain the main source of subsistence also in the future. If a person considers two sources of subsistence as important for his/her coping, then both are recorded: the most relevant one is written in the 1st column and the second relevant one in the 2nd column. The order of importance shall be determined by the person covered by the Census. For example, if the person receives child benefit and at the same time his/her sources of subsistence are wages, income from entrepreneurship, etc., then the enumerator should specify which source of subsistence is the most important one for the person (with respect to the size of income). 
  “Wages and salaries” are recorded as a source of subsistence for those who during the last 12 months have worked under employment contract, contract of agreement, according to the Public Service Act or oral agreement with the employer for payment received as money or in kind (food, fuel, etc.). This group comprises all compensations received for work (including casual labour), including royalties, contract payments, premium pays, as well as income received for piecework, tips and commission or percentage of sales in compliance with the agreement made with the employer. Also scholarships and other money received for doing a certain work, research or project are regarded as wages. 
  “Entrepreneurial income, income from farming” is recorded as a source of subsistence for those who have received income from production, mediation and business activity, in which the person covered by the Census is actively involved with. Whether it is an individual or enterprise, whether the enterprise has been registered or not is insignificant. A note is made also for those whose main source of subsistence comprises the production of agricultural products, timber, furs, etc. for sale on their farm or in personal household. 
  “Property income, income from capital (rental income, dividends, interests)” are a source of subsistence for those who have received income from letting (real or personal) property, have received income in the form of interests on loan, dividends on shares or from entrepreneurship or business activity or in any other way where the person covered by the Census himself/herself is not actively involved with. 
  “Pension” is recorded as a source of subsistence for those who get their subsistence in the form of an old-age pension, public pension, disablement pension, survivor’s pension or any other pension. Survivor’s pension is recorded as a source of subsistence (if it is important) for a person whom it has been granted to. 
  “Benefits, scholarships, supports” are recorded as a source of subsistence for those who get their subsistence in the form of subsistence benefits, state or other child benefits, unemployment benefits, scholarships founded by the Republic of Estonia, local governments, foreign countries and private persons (except scholarships or other money granted for doing a certain work, research or project — these are regarded as wages) or in the form of other supports, for example, to freelance artists and writers (through the medium of Cultural Endowment or any other fund). 
  State and other child benefits are recorded as a source of subsistence for the child’s parent or custodian in whose name they have been granted to, in case they are important with respect to coping. 
  Persons, who in the last 12 months have been mainly maintained by an institution, are recorded as “maintained by an institution”. 
  Persons, who are maintained by household members or other persons (parents, spouse, relatives, etc.), e.g. children, are considered to be “maintained by other persons”. Students, who in the last 12 months received support (money or food) from their parents and for whom this support forms a significant part of their sources of subsistence, are also recorded as maintained by other persons. Persons, for whom alimony forms a significant part of their source of subsistence, are also recorded here. 
  “Loans, deposits, receipts from the sale of possessions” are recorded as a source of subsistence for all those who have received their subsistence, for example, in the form of study loans or any other loans meant for immediate use, also money (savings) taken from deposit, sale of shares or business stocks, sale of real or personal property, i.e. for persons who receive subsistence from the realisation of the previously acquired possessions. Loans taken for the purchase of dwellings, buildings, etc. should not be taken into account. Situation where person’s wages or any other money income come in the person’s account and the respondent uses it currently as a source of subsistence is not considered living off savings deposit. 
  “Personal auxiliary household” is recorded as a source of subsistence for those who received their main subsistence from the production of agricultural products (vegetables, horticultural products, farm animals, etc.) only for own consumption if it forms an important part of subsistence of the person covered by the Census. This does not include cases when the production is sold and the income received therefrom is the main source of subsistence (i.e. entrepreneurial income, income from farming). 
  “Other source” is recorded as a source of subsistence for those who during the last 12 months received their main subsistence from sources not listed before. This option includes also persons for whom the main source of subsistence is begging or collecting waste (garbage and bottles), etc. 
  84. Question 20
  Do you attend at present any institution of general, vocational or higher education? / Do you go to pre-primary children’s institution?
  Answered by a 3-year-old or older person (born on or before 30 March 1997). 
  Up to two answers are recorded. The question, whether you go to pre-primary children’s institution, is usually asked about 3–6-year-old children and about those one or two years older children who do not go to school. Only these studies should be registered which are specifically aimed at completing general, vocational or professional education in a formal educational system (fixed by official curricula and organisationally ensured education), i.e. in institutions of general education, of vocational education and higher education. Also full-time studies (day, evening) or correspondence courses should be registered, as well as those, in the case of which the person does not attend school temporarily, but the formal connections with the educational institution have been preserved (academic leave, free semester, etc.). In case person studies simultaneously on two different educational levels, both variants are registered. 
  “No” is recorded for persons who do not go to a pre-primary children’s institution, or do not study in institutions of general, vocational or higher education. Also persons, who attend preparatory courses for children of pre-school age or attend in-service training or re-training courses, training for the unemployed or courses for own interest (informal education), are included here. 
  “Pre-primary children’s institution” is recorded for persons who go to an infants’, toddlers’, special or family group in a pre-primary children’s institution (nursery school, kindergarten, kindergarten-creche, day-care centre, kindergarten for handicapped, kindergarten-primary school). Persons, who study in a school class at the pre-primary children’s institution (1–6th grades are recorded) or take a preparatory course for children of pre-school age, are not included here. 
  “1–6th grade” is recorded for a person who studies in the 1–6th grade of an institution of general education (primary school, basic school, secondary school, gymnasium, etc.). 
  “7–9th grade is recorded for a person who studies in the 7–9th grade of an institution of general education. 
  “10–12th grade” is recorded for a person who studies in the 10–12th grade of an institution of general education. 
  “Institution of vocational education” is recorded for a person who studies in vocational secondary school, vocational school, technical school, etc. and does not receive basic or secondary education in the framework of the same curriculum. It is important that the duration of studies is at least 9 months and the educational institution where the vocation is learnt was included in an officially regulated educational system, i.e. that the document certifying the vocation learnt would be officially recognised. 
  “Institution of vocational basic education” is recorded for a person who in addition to vocation receives also basic education in the framework of the same curriculum. 
  “Institution of vocational secondary education” is recorded for a person who in addition to vocation receives also secondary education in the framework of the same curriculum. 
  “Vocational secondary education after basic education” is recorded for a person who acquires vocational secondary education in the framework of the curriculum where the required educational level at entrance is basic education. 
  “Vocational secondary education after secondary education” is recorded for a person who acquires vocational secondary education in the framework of the curriculum where the required educational level at entrance is secondary education. 
“  Professional secondary education after basic education” is recorded for a person who acquires professional secondary education in the framework of the curriculum where the required educational level at entrance is basic education. 
  “Professional secondary education after secondary education” is recorded for a person who acquires professional secondary education in the framework of the curriculum where the required educational level at entrance is secondary education. 
  “Vocational higher education” is recorded for a person who studies at a professional higher school or in an institution of vocational education according to the curriculum of vocational higher education. 
  “Diploma course” (so-called professional higher education) is recorded for a person who studies according to the curriculum of a higher educational institution or of any other educational institution at the graduation from which no academic degree is awarded but only a diploma is given certifying the completion of higher education. 
  “Bachelor course” is recorded for a person who studies at a bachelor course. 
  “Master’s course” (including internship) is recorded for a person who takes a master’s course at a higher school. 
  “Doctor’s course” (including residentship) is recorded for a person who takes a doctor’s course at a higher school. 
  85. Questions 21 and 22 are answered by a 10-year-old or older person (born on or before 30 March 1990). 
  86. Question 21
  What is your highest level of vocational or professional education completed?
  One of the given answers is recorded. 
  It should be born in mind that the person’s educational level is determined by the highest educational institution or grade completed in the formal educational system (i.e. in schools of general, vocational or higher education), education that is uncompleted does not raise that level. The level of vocational or professional education received in a foreign country should be determined similar to determining the educational level completed in Estonia. 
  “No vocational or professional education” is recorded for a person who has no vocational or professional education. Here are also included those secondary school graduates who in addition to secondary education received a vocation. 
  Vocational education (second to fourth variants of answers) is recorded for a person who has received a document certifying his/her vocational qualification (e.g. certificate of vocation, graduation certificate) from a vocational secondary school, vocational school, industrial school, factory school, technical school, etc. 
  “Vocational education” is recorded for a person who after completing an educational level of a general school has received a document certifying his/her vocational qualification of vocational education (in vocational school, technical school, etc.) without having received basic or secondary education. Additional training and re-training, in-service training and education for own interest (language courses, adult education courses) shall not be taken into account here. 
  “Vocational basic education” is recorded for a person who in the framework of the same curriculum acquired in addition to vocational education also basic education. 
  “Vocational secondary education” is recorded for a person who in the framework of the same curriculum acquired in addition to vocational education also secondary education (for example, a person who received a secondary education certificate and professional certificate upon the completion of a vocational secondary school). Persons, who upon the completion of a general education institution (secondary school, gymnasium, etc.) received in addition to secondary education a document certifying their professional training, are not included here. 
  “Vocational secondary education after secondary education” is recorded for a person who has completed vocational secondary education on the basis of a curriculum of an educational institution providing such education after he/she had completed secondary education (there are persons with such education from 1999). 
  “Professional secondary / technical education after basic education” is recorded for a person who has completed professional secondary education on the basis of a curriculum of a technical school, business school, higher agricultural or gardening school, maritime school or any other educational institution providing such education after he/she had completed basic education. 
  “Professional secondary / technical education after secondary education” is recorded for a person who has completed professional secondary education on the basis of a curriculum of a professional secondary or any other educational institution providing such education after he/she had completed secondary education. 
  “Higher education” is recorded for a person who has a diploma certifying higher education (has completed higher education on the basis of a curriculum of an institute, academy, university or any other educational institution, except that of adult education courses or of the university of marxism-leninism). 
  “Master’s degree” is recorded for a person who has been awarded a master’s degree. Also persons who have completed internship are recorded here. 
  “Candidate of sciences / doctor’s degree” is recorded for a person who has been awarded a candidate of sciences or doctor’s degree. Also persons who have completed residentship are recorded here. 
  87. Question 22
  Education attained in a school of general education (or in any other educational institution providing general education)?
  One of the answers is recorded. 
  It should be born in mind that the person’s educational level is determined by the highest educational institution or grade completed, education that is uncompleted does not raise that level. It is insignificant in what kind of form of studies it was acquired (full-time studies, evening, correspondence courses or as an extern). General education should be recorded for all persons (including persons with higher education). The level of general education completed in a foreign country should be determined similar to determining the educational level completed in Estonia. 
  87.1. ”Secondary education” is recorded for persons who have finished a secondary school of 10 grades, of 11-grades or of 12-grades, gymnasium, secondary scientific school, college of general education (except progymnasium or secondary scientific school of the period 1934–1940) or received general education in a special school (for handicapped childen or a closed special school for juvenile delinquents). 
  Persons who have completed secondary vocational education or professional secondary education after basic education in an institution of vocational education are not included here, “basic education” is recorded for them. 
  87.2. “Basic education (uncompleted secondary education)” is recorded for a person who has finished: 

a) incomplete secondary school or 7 grades in 1961 or earlier or

b) at least 8 grades in 1962–1989 or

c) basic school or at least 9 grades in 1990 or later, and have not completed secondary general education. 
  Also persons are included here who have 

  1. completed professional secondary education after basic education or
  2. finished secondary scientific school or progymnasium until 1940 or
  3. finished vocational secondary school in 1920–1944 or
  4. completed basic education in special schools.

87.3. “Primary education” is recorded for a person who has finished: 

a) one-grade village school, town primary school, one- or two-grade country elementary school, parish school, higher elementary school until 1920 or 

b) 4 or 6 grades in 1930 or earlier or 

c) 6 grades (including evening elementary schools for adults) in 1930–1944 or 

d) 4 grades in 1945–1971 or in 1991–1996 or 

e) 3 grades in 1972–1989 or 

f) 6 grades in 1990 or later, but has not completed basic education (including those who have discontinued acquiring basic education at school). 
  87.4. “No primary education, literate” is recorded for a person who has not completed the level corresponding to primary education but who can, with understanding, both read and write a simple text on his/her everyday life at least in one language (including writing used by the blind). 
  87.5. “No primary education, illiterate” is recorded for a person who has not completed the level corresponding to primary education and cannot, with understanding, both read and write a simple text on his/her everyday life at least in one language. 
  88. Question 23
  What is your religious affiliation?
  Answered by a 15-year-old or older person (born on or before 30 March 1985). Answering is voluntary. 
  At first the person covered by the Census is informed of the fact that answering this question is voluntary and he/she is asked if he/she is willing to answer this question. In the case of a negative answer, “refused to answer” is recorded. In the case of an affirmative answer, the person is asked if he/she declares himself/herself to be a follower of a particular faith, if he/she is an atheist or has no religious affiliation. 
  “Follower of a particular faith” is recorded for a person who confesses some faith. In the case of this answer it is specified which faith the person regards as his/her own. The person does not necessarily have to be a member of a church or of a congregation. Only one faith can be recorded. If the person cannot say what faith it is, but knows the name of the respective church, congregation or any other religious community, it should be written in the space for “other faith”. 
  Person is considered to have no religious affiliation when he/she does not deny the faith but does not regard any as his/hers. 
  “Atheist” is recorded for a person who knowingly denies the existence of a God and religion. 
  If a person cannot determine his/her religion, “cannot answer” is recorded. 
  89. Questions 24–31 are answered by a 15-year-old or older person (born on or before 30 March 1985). 
  90. Questions 24–30 are about the week preceding the Census, i.e. about 20–26 March 2000. (This should be told to the person covered by the Census!) 
  91. Question 24
  Did you work in the above-mentioned week for one hour or more? (answer “yes” also in case you were absent from work because of illness, vacation, etc.)
  The aim of the question is to determine whether the person covered by the Census has had a work relationship in the week preceding the Census or not, and proceeding from that it should then be continued with question 25 or 26. All persons who had worked at least one hour or were temporarily absent from work during the week under observation are regarded as having worked. This definition is imposed by the need to specify unemployment as total absence of work. 
  91.1. For enumeration purposes work is defined as 
    a.  work for payment under contract or according to an agreement, including:

  1. work for payment in kind (for food, housing, fuels, etc.);
  2. work the payment for which is given in the form of royalties, contract payments or premium pays, as well as payment for piecework, tips, commission or as percentage of sales in compliance with the agreement made with the employer;
  3. work paid by scholarship, royalties or other money granted for doing a particular work, research or project;
  4. work in own enterprise or farm, private practice;
  5. work for pay or without pay in an enterprise or farm of another member of the household;
  6. part-time work;
  7. activity providing illegal income.

Population Census is interested in actual working not its registration. If actual working does not coincide with the formal work relationship, then it should be proceeded from the actual working. Activities providing illegal income are also regarded as work. 
  91.2. For enumeration purposes the following are not regarded as work: 

  1. work in personal private household;
  2. babysitting without pay in one’s own family, at relatives or friends;
  3. voluntary work without pay (except cases set out in point 91.1 (c));
  4. work done in an institution by a person living in that institutional establishment (including prisoners).

For persons in military service “no” is also recorded. 
  91.3. Temporarily absent from work are those in the case of whom working has stopped temporarily for a certain period and who believe to continue working for the same employer or within the same institution, and in the case of whom at least one of the following conditions has been fulfilled: 

  1. getting wages, payment or compensation continues or
  2. temporary absence has lasted up to 4 months.

In principle, only those persons who have some lasting work relationship can be defined as temporarily absent from work. Persons on parental leave, unpaid family members and casual labourers who do not work temporarily, as well as seasonal workers outside the working season, are not regarded as temporarily absent from work. Entrepreneurs (employers, self-employed persons and farmers) are recorded as temporarily absent from work if the enterprise, where it is possible to go back to, meanwhile continues to exist. Persons who have an agreement to start work but who have not yet started working are regarded as unemployed (except persons who have fallen ill on the first day of the agreed work — they are considered as temporarily absent from work). 
  92. The next question is presented to those 15-year-old and older persons who did not work any hours nor were temporarily absent from work on 20–26 March 2000.
  93. Question 25
  Which of the following groups do you belong to?
  One answer should be recorded. 
  If the person covered by the Census is in military service, this should definitely be recorded.
  93.1. “In military service” is recorded for persons who serve in the armed forces, in the navy or at the borders of the Republic of Estonia, as well as for persons in active compulsory service considered equal to military service. Students in military educational institutions are recorded as being in military service. Officers and persons staying overtime in military service are not regarded as in military service. 
  93.2. “Unemployed job seeker, ready to start work” is recorded for persons in the case of whom the following three conditions are fulfilled at the same time: 

  1. they are unemployed,
  2. they have been actively seeking work during the past four weeks and
  3. in the case of finding work they are ready to start working within two weeks.

Active job seeking comprises all steps taken to find a job or start entrepreneurship (e.g. registration at a public or any other employment exchange, meeting possible employers, placing or answering newspaper advertisements, applications to employers, acquiring information about free workplaces from acquaintances or relatives, going to places of recruitment of temporary labour (markets, etc.), registration of an enterprise/farm, applying for a permit or a loan to start activity, looking for land, rooms, equipment, employees, etc. to establish own enterprise/farm). 
  Waiting for an earlier agreed work to start is also considered to be equal to job seeking. 
  Ready to start work — if the person covered by the Census is ready to take on a suitable job within two weeks. 
  If the person covered by the Census does not want to or cannot take on work for some reason obstructing to start work, irrespective of the wish to start working, then he/she is not regarded as ready to start work but instead “homemaker”, etc. is recorded. 
  Persons who have an agreement to start work but who have not yet started working (except persons who have fallen ill on the first day of the agreed work) are also regarded as unemployed. This group comprises also persons who are retired or study in case they fulfil all three conditions (does not work, is actively seeking job, is ready to start work within two weeks). 
  NB! If a person considers himself/herself as belonging to this group, it should definitely be specified whether he/she fulfils all the three above-mentioned conditions! 
  93.3. “Student (pupil)” is recorded for persons who receive general, vocational or professional education (fixed by official curricula and organisationally ensured education) in formal educational system, i.e. in schools of general, vocational or higher education (see point 84 of these Census rules). Students studying in military educational institutions are recorded as being in military service. Persons on academic leave are classified here according to the activity they are engaged with during the leave (e.g. homemaker, etc.). Persons who attend in-service training and retraining courses (usually temporarily absent from work), training for the unemployed (i.e. unemployed for other reasons) or courses for own interest (informal education). 
  93.4. “Pensioner” is recorded for those who have been granted an old-age pension, survivor’s pension, disablement or public pension. 
  93.5. “Homemaker” is recorded for those who are not seeking work and are not ready to start work within two weeks and most of whom are engaged in unpaid household duties and/or take care of the children and other members of the family, for example, persons on parental leave — non-employed persons raising under 3-year-old children (mother, father or custodian; persons on pregnancy and childbirth leave are not included here — they are recorded as employed) or other persons responsible for the care of the household. Pensioners, students (pupils) are not recorded here. 
  93.6. “Unemployed for other reasons” is recorded for persons not working for other reasons, including: 

  1. persons in police or penal institutions, including police houses of detention, detention cells, prisons, pre-trial imprisonment or refugee camps;
  2. persons who see no reason for working or who live off their property (rentiers);
  3. persons who would want to work but who for some reason have given up seeking work;
  4. persons who are currently not seeking work and who are not ready to start work within the next two weeks as they attend training courses;
  5. persons not working due to disability or long-term illness.

94. Questions 26–31 are presented only to those 15-year-old and older persons who gave an affirmative answer to question 24. 
  95. Question 26
  What is the name of your main place of work or the name of main employer?
  Answering the question is voluntary; it is a helping information for coding the economic activity. Person’s main place of work is the place of work where he/she works for most of the time. If the person covered by the Census has many workplaces, the one is recorded as the main place of work where the majority of the person’s working time is spent. Actual working should be born in mind not a formal relationship with some employer. The main place of work / main employer may be an enterprise or institution as well as a farm, freelancing or individual work. If the person covered by the Census cannot name the main place of work on the basis of the time criterion, then the next criteria are the wages and prestige. The full name of the main place of work is recorded. If the main place of work has different functions compared to the main economic activity, then also the subdivision where he/she works should be recorded. If the name of the place of work includes a place name, then it should also be recorded. If necessary, the enumerator should present additional questions to specify the existence of a subdivision or of the place name. Abbreviations of the employer’s name should be avoided. In the case of public limited companies, private limited companies and non-profit associations, the type of employer should definitely be recorded, using the following abbreviations: AS — public limited company, OÜ — private limited company, SA — foundation, TÜH — commercial co-operative, TÜ — general partnership, UÜ — limited partnership. 
  Abbreviation is written at the end of the name. 
  In the case of a farmer the business name of the farm (registered in Commercial Register) should be recorded. If for some reason it proves impossible, the farmer’s first and surname should be written and then — at the end — “farm”.
  In the case of sole proprietors also their business name should be recorded. If the person covered by the Census works in a foreign country, for a foreign employer, then it is not necessary to record the name of the employer. 
  96. Question 27
  What is the main economic activity of your main place of work / main employer?
  The main economic activity (industry / branch of the economic activity) should be recorded in the questionnaire as precisely as possible. The principal functions of the economic activity of the employer should be recorded, including the object of the work and what is done (produced, processed, mediated, sold, built, gathered, caught, etc.). In some cases the name of the employer in itself describes the economic activity, e.g. kindergarten, sauna, Tax Office, etc. If the person has an employer who has no economic activity, then the person writes his/her own economic activity. If the person works in a subdivision the economic activity of which differs from the employer’s main economic activity, the economic activity of the subdivision is written. 
  97. Question 28
  What is the address of your main place of work?
  The actual location of the main place of work / employer should be recorded where he/she worked for most of the time in the week preceding the Census. If the person worked for most of the time in the week preceding the Census in the same building or territory (yard house, garage, etc.) where his/her permanent place of residence is or in the farm owned by him/her or his/her household member, the answer “a) in your own home/farm” should be recorded and then continued with question 29. If the person finds it difficult to name his/her exact place of work and he/she does not start work in the same place every day, the answer “b) definite address of the place of work missing” is recorded. If the person worked in the area of one and the same county, rural municipality or settlement, then “c)” the name of the county, rural municipality or settlement (see point 38 of these Census rules) should be written in the spaces designated for recording the address. If the person has had a definite place of work in Estonia during the week under observation (except the variant “in your own home/farm”), then the address of this place is written as precisely as possible (see point 38 of these Census rules) and it is then continued with question 29. If the person’s employer has subdivisions in a number of places and the address of the employer is different from the address of the place of work of the person covered by the Census, then the address where the person covered by the Census worked for most of the time should be recorded as the place of work. If the person worked in the week preceding the Census in many different places or was doing a work involving mobility (i.e. moving from place to place) but received the work orders from one and the same place in the mornings, then the address of this place is recorded. If the person worked in the week preceding the Census in a foreign country, then the name of that country is written down and it is then continued with question 29. 
  98. Question 29
  What is your employment status at your main place of work or with your main employer?
  One of the answers is recorded according to the person’s employment status at his/her main place of work / with his/her main employer. If the person has more than one status at his/her main place of work, then the one should be chosen which gives more income. If difficulties arise, for example, in classifying a person who is a shareholder as entrepreneur or employee, then it should be proceeded from the fact whether he/she receives the income mainly in the form of wages or as entrepreneurial income. The members of various co-operatives/associations should treated in the same way. 
  98.1. Salaried employees are persons who: 

  1. in the week preceding the Census were engaged in full- or part-time work for the institution, enterprise or any other employer, for which they were remunerated either by money or in kind (it is insignificant whether the place of work was officially registered or not) or
  2. has a contractual relationship with the employer (employment contract, contract of agreement, work relationship based on the Public Service Act, oral agreement with the employer) but were temporarily absent from work.

Officers and persons earning their living with casual work are also regarded as salaried employees. 
  98.2. “Employee with a stable contract” is recorded for employees who have had and who probably continue to have a contract with an employer for a year or longer. 
  98.3. “Other employee” is recorded for all the rest of employees, i.e. for persons who have had a contract with the employer that lasted less than one year; the same applies to casual workers. 
  98.4. “Entrepreneur-employer, farmer with salaried employees” is recorded for those 

  1. who have their own enterprise or service-mediation-/business activity (workshop, bureau, shop, etc.), where the services of at least one salaried employee are used (it is insignificant whether the enterprise has been registered or not). The use of temporary (seasonal) salaried employees does not change the person into an entrepreneur with salaried employees. Also the head of enterprise who is a salaried employee is not an entrepreneur-employer;
  2. who operate a farm where at least one salaried employee works on a permanent basis (except for own members of the family).

Co-owners of a firm are regarded as entrepreneurs with salaried employees or entrepreneurs without salaried employees depending on whether their firms use salaried employees or not. 
  98.5. “Self-employed person, freelancer, farmer without salaried employees” is recorded for those who 

  1. are engaged in selling of their work product (service or commodity) and who own the necessary means of production and do not use salaried employees or
  2. are partners in a partnership which does not employ salaried employees or
  3. operate a farm where no salaried employees work on a permanent basis (except for own members of the family) or
  4. are freelancers — i.e. creative workers who are not employed by anybody (for example, artist, writer, etc.). Employees who earn their living by doing casual work are not regarded as freelancers.

If problems arise in classifying persons into either a self-employed person / freelancer or salaried employee, then the person for whom the employing organisation is responsible for payment of taxes is considered an employee; person who pays his/her own taxes, is considered a self-employed person / freelancer. 

98.6. “Contributing family worker in a family enterprise, farm” is recorded for those who in the week preceding the Census worked without direct payment in a family enterprise (or farm which is owned by one of the members of the family) and who in return receive part of the income or benefits of the enterprise or farm. 
  98.7. “Member of the commercial association” is recorded for those who are members in an association the objective of which according to statutes is to receive and distribute the material income between its members. The business name of the association should include the compliment “association”. 
  99. Question 30
  What is your occupation at your main place of work? / What are your work tasks?
  In writing the occupation it should be proceeded from the work tasks of the person at the person’s main place of work according to the person’s statement, the registered occupation should describe the work tasks as precisely as possible. If necessary, the data should be specified: it is not suffice to write worker, engineer, craftsman, specialist, consultant, operator, employee, public servant, mechanic, machinist, office worker, foreman, inspector, etc. but instead it should be recorded whether the person is an electrician, mechanic of drilling equipment, film operator, computer operator, etc. In the case of official titles that consist of several different parts, the most important one, the official title referring to the main occupation should be recorded first. For teachers it is important to record the level of educational system he/she is working at. 
  In the case of heads of enterprises/institutions it is important to make distinction between the size of enterprise (in the case of a small enterprise, VE + the official title of the head of the enterprise should be recorded). Enterprises, which employ less than 15 persons or where only one executive is subordinate to the head of enterprise, are regarded as small. The heads of the rest of enterprises/institutions are considered to be heads of large enterprises (three or more executives). Also the name of the department/subdivision, etc. the head of which the person is, should be recorded. If the person is an officer/soldier, then OFFICER/SOLDIER should be written. Abbreviations are not to be used in recording the official title. 
  Please give a short description of your work tasks (filled out in case the official title does not describe the work tasks sufficiently). The aim of this additional question is to facilitate the classification of occupations in the course of processing the Census data. The question should be asked from a person in case his/her official title does not describe his/her work tasks and the answer to this question should fully show the nature of the work. If the official title already describes the content of occupation, then there is no need to present this question to the person and this space can be left empty. If the occupation of the person covered by the Census is said in Russian and the official title cannot be translated into Estonian on the spot, then the official title is written in block letters in Russian into the space “Please give a short description of your work tasks”. 
  100. Question 31
  How many hours do you usually work in a week?
  The usual number of hours worked in a week is recorded here. The usual time worked is defined as the usual length of working week in hours over a longer period. The actual time worked is meant here, not the time registered in the contract. Lunch breaks, time spent on commuting to and from work are not included in the working time. Regular overtime, time spent on work tasks outside the place of work and hours worked unofficially should also be regarded as time worked. If the person works usually in several different places of work in a week, then the total number of hours worked, including the time worked in one’s own farm or family enterprise, should be recorded. In the case of seasonal work, the annual average length of the working week should be taken into account. If the only activity of the person covered by the Census is casual work and answering this question proves to be difficult, then the actual average number of hours worked in the last four weeks should be taken into account. If the person covered by the Census has only started working and he/she finds it difficult to estimate the length of usual working time, then the answer should be based on the duration of working time agreed with the employer or on the working time of other workers doing the same kind of work. 
  Of which how many hours at your main place of work?
  The usual time spent on working at the main place of work / for the main employer is written here.

Minister of Finance Mart Opmann