Gross domestic expenditure on R&D (GERD)

Percentage of GDP

The four indicators provided are GERD (Gross domestic expenditure on R&D) as a percentage of GDP, percentage of GERD financed by industry, percentage of GERD financed by government and percentage of GERD financed from abroad. "Research and experimental development (R&D) comprise creative work undertaken on a systematic basis in order to increase the stock of knowledge, including knowledge of man, culture and society and the use of this stock of knowledge to devise new applications" (Frascati Manual, 2002 edition, ยง 63 ). R&D is an activity where there are significant transfers of resources between units, organisations and sectors and it is important to trace the flow of R&D funds.

Additional information on Eurostat web page

2014201520162017TARGET
EU (28 countries)2.032.042.042.07 (p)3
Euro area (19 countries)2.122.132.132.17 (p)..
Belgium2.392.462.55 (e)2.58 (p)3
Bulgaria0.790.960.780.75 (p)1.5
Czechia21.931.681.791
Denmark2.913.063.123.06 (p)3
Germany2.872.912.923.02 (e)3
Estonia1.431.471.251.293
Ireland1.55 (e)1.191.191.052
Greece0.830.960.991.13 (p)1.2
Spain1.241.221.191.2 (p)2
France2.232.27 (p)2.25 (p)..3
Croatia0.780.840.860.86 (p)1.4
Italy1.34 (e)1.341.37 (b)1.35 (p)1.53
Cyprus0.510.480.530.56 (p)0.5
Latvia0.690.630.440.51 (p)1.5
Lithuania1.031.040.840.881.9
Luxembourg1.261.281.31.26 (p)2.3
Hungary1.351.361.21.351.8
Malta0.720.750.580.552
Netherlands1.981.9821.99 (p)2.5
Austria3.08 (e)3.053.13 (e)3.16 (p)3.76
Poland0.9410.961.031.7
Portugal1.291.241.281.32 (p)2.7
Romania0.380.490.480.52
Slovenia2.372.22.011.86 (p)3
Slovakia0.881.170.790.881.2
Finland3.172.92.742.764
Sweden3.14 (e)3.263.27 (p)3.334
United Kingdom1.66 (e)1.671.68 (e)1.67 (p)..
Iceland1.952.122.032.13..
Norway1.711.932.032.11 (p)..
Switzerland..3.37......
Montenegro0.360.370.32....
Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia, the..0.440.430.35..
Serbia0.770.870.890.93..
Turkey0.860.880.940.96..
Bosnia and Herzegovina0.26........
Russia1.071.1......
United States2.74 (d)2.76 (dp)......
Japan3.43.28......
South Korea4.294.22......
EU (27 countries)........3

(..) - not available
(p) - provisional
(e) - estimated
(b) - break in time series
(d) - definition differs (see metadata)

Source: Eurostat