Social exclusion and poverty
A person might experience social exclusion if he or she lives at risk of poverty, or below the subsistence minimum, is severely materially deprived or lives in a household where the working-age members have very low work intensity. A low income might contribute to social exclusion: a person cannot afford dwelling essentials or durables, such as to pay rent or utilities, eat nutritious food, take a holiday away from home or buy a car, washing machine or phone.
To measure social exclusion and to identify the socioeconomic characteristics of people living in social exclusion, Statistics Estonia publishes data for the following indicators:
- at-risk-of-poverty and absolute poverty rates;
- participation in the labour market and work intensity of household;
- households with payment difficulties.
All European Union member states use Laeken indicators to measure social exclusion. The indicators allow comparing the developments in Estonia with those in other countries.