Time left until the publication of the data on housing arrangements collected in the population census:

14. Life Below Water

The focus of the global goal “Life Below Water” is the protection of the ecosystems of seas and oceans and sustainable use of marine resources. Marine acidification caused by climate change and pollution of the world seas and oceans as well as overfishing have a major impact on marine ecosystems.

The 2030 Agenda includes the target to reduce marine pollution of all kinds (first target date 2025) and ensure sustainable management, protection and restoration of marine and coastal ecosystems (first target date 2020). A separate target is providing access for small-scale artisanal fishers to marine resources and markets.

According to the UN progress report, the condition of coastal waters continues to deteriorate because of both pollution and the introduction of excessive nutrients, which cause algal growth and consequently death of marine life from lack of oxygen. Ocean acidification is caused by higher CO2 concentrations, which affect the balance of carbonate compounds, which in turn affect marine species such as reef-building corals and shelled molluscs. The marine status has been harmed by overfishing, which reduces food resources. For sustainable use and protection of marine ecosystems, it is necessary to review policies and implement strategies. It is important to establish and manage marine protected areas.

The Estonian sustainable development strategy emphasises the importance of the good state of the coastal sea and use of fish stock not in excess of natural regeneration.

he global goal “Conserve and sustainably use the oceans, seas and marine resources for sustainable development” is linked in Estonia with the following indicators:

  • Marine protected areas
  • Spawning stock biomass
  • Total phosphorus and total nitrogen load to the sea
Share of marine protected areas in Estonian marine area (incl. exclusive economic zone) 18.7 %
2021
Spawning stock biomass of Baltic herring in the Gulf of Riga 146,956 tonnes
2020
Spawning stock biomass reference point of Baltic herring in the Gulf of Rigaga 60,000 tonnes
2021
Spawning stock biomass of Baltic herring in the Baltic Proper 364,981 tonnes
2020
Spawning stock biomass reference point of Baltic herring in the Baltic Proper 460,000 tonnes
2021
Spawning stock biomass of sprat in the Baltic Sea 939,000 tonnes
2021
Spawning stock biomass reference point of sprat in the Baltic Sea 570,000 tonnes
2021
Spawning stock biomass of Atlantic cod in Western Baltic 5,303 tonnes
2021
Spawning stock biomass reference point of Atlantic cod in Western Baltic 23,492 tonnes
2021
Total phosphorus load to the sea 0.6 thousand tonnes
0.0%
2020
Total nitrogen load to the sea 30.3 thousand tonnes
7.4%
2020