Title of statistical activity: Purchase and use of milk

Code of statistical activity: 21206

  1. Contact
  2. Metadata update
  3. Statistical presentation
  4. Unit of measure
  5. Reference period
  6. Institutional mandate
  7. Confidentiality
  8. Release policy
  9. Frequency of dissemination
  10. Accessibility and clarity
  11. Quality management
  12. Relevance
  13. Accuracy and reliability
  14. Timeliness and punctuality
  15. Coherence and comparability
  16. Cost and burden
  17. Data revision
  18. Statistical processing

1. Contact Individual or organisational contact points for the data or metadata, including information on how to reach the contact points.

1.1. Contact organisation The name of the organisation of the contact points for the data or metadata.

Statistics Estonia

1.2. Contact organisation unit An addressable subdivision of an organisation.

Enterprise and Agricultural Statistics Department

1.3. Contact name The name of the contact points for the data or metadata.

Anton Kardakov

1.4. Contact person function The area of technical responsibility of the contact, such as "methodology", "database management" or "dissemination".


1.5. Contact mail address The postal address of the contact points for the data or metadata.

51 Tatari Str, 10134 Tallinn, Estonia

1.6. Contact email address E-mail address of the contact points for the data or metadata.


1.7. Contact phone number The telephone number of the contact points for the data or metadata.

+372 625 8479

2. Metadata update The date on which the metadata element was inserted or modified in the database.

2.1. Metadata last certified Date of the latest certification provided by the domain manager to confirm that the metadata posted are still up-to-date, even if the content has not been amended.


2.2. Metadata last update Date of last update of the content of the metadata.


3. Statistical presentation

3.1. Data description Main characteristics of the data set described in an easily understandable manner, referring to the data and indicators disseminated.

Volume and price of purchased milk, volume of milk of elite grade, high grade and first grade; fat and protein content; produced milk products

Whole milk, skimmed milk and milk fat used as input

3.2. Classification system Arrangement or division of objects into groups based on characteristics which the objects have in common.

Estonian Classification of Economic Activities (EMTAK 2008) based on NACE Rev. 2

Combined Nomenclature (CN)

3.3. Sector coverage Main economic or other sectors covered by the statistics.

First buyers of milk directly from Estonian agricultural producers and milk processing establishments approved by the Veterinary and Food Board.

3.4. Statistical concepts and definitions Statistical characteristics of statistical observations.

Acidified milk – milk product with a pH between 3.8 and 5.5. Relates to yoghurts, drinkable yoghurts, prepared yoghurts, heat-treated fermented milk and other products; products based on or containing bifidus; acidified milk with/without additives with the addition of sugar and/or sweeteners.

Agricultural producer – a legal or natural person, or a group of legal or natural persons, whose holding is situated in Estonia, and who engages in an agricultural activity.

Butter and other yellow fat products (as equivalent of 82% butter) – butter, natural butter (processed directly and only from pasteurized cream), recombined butter (produced from butteroil, dry non-fat milk-material and water), whey butter (produced from whey cream or mix of whey cream and cream), rendered butter and butteroil and other milk fat products shown as butter equivalent (incl. võideks, võidel).

Buttermilk – a residual product (also acid or acidified) of the processing of milk or cream into butter (by continuous churning and separation of solid fat). Buttermilk with additives is included in drinks with a milk base.

Butteroil – a product obtained from milk, cream or butter by processes which eliminate the water and the non-fat dry extract; with a content of milk fat of at least 99.3% by weight and a water content of up to 0.5% by weight.

Cheese – a fresh or matured (semi-)solid product obtained by coagulating milk, skimmed milk, partly skimmed milk, cream, whey cream or buttermilk, alone or in combination, by the action of rennet or other suitable coagulating agents, and by partly draining the whey resulting from such coagulation (incl. cheese-like product with vegetable fat). Includes cheese obtained from cow milk, incl fresh cheese.

Cream – processed cream available for delivery outside dairies (for human consumption, as raw material, for manufacturers of chocolate, ice cream, etc.). Also includes cream heat treated, acidified, in cartons or tins.

Cream milk powder – milk powder with a milk fat content of at least 42% by weight of the product.

Curd (fresh cheese) – product obtained from sour milk from which most of the serum has been removed by draining or pressing and which may contain up to 30% by weight of sugar and added fruits. Includes curd (except in the form of powder), cottage cheese, raw cheese, cheese curd, mozzarella, fresh whey cheese (obtained by concentrating whey and adding milk or milk fat).

Drinking milk – raw milk, whole milk, semi-skimmed and skimmed milk containing no additives, also milk with vitamin additives. Milk directly intended for consumption, normally in containers of two litres or less.

Enterprise – an enterprise consists of one or more companies (public limited company, private limited company, limited partnership, general partnership, commercial association) or branches of foreign companies or sole proprietors.

Heat treatment – pasteurizing, sterilizing or uperizing.

Low fat milk powder – milk powder with a milk fat content of more than 1.5% and less than 26% by weight of the product.

Manufacture of dairy products – milk products from fresh cow milk or skimmed milk for delivery outside dairies. To avoid double counting, milk products used in Estonian dairies for the manufacture of other milk products are not taken into account.

Natural butter – product produced from pasteurized cream with a milk fat content of at least 80% but less than 90%, a water content of up to 16% and a dry non-fat milk-material content of up to 2%.

Pasteurized milk – milk obtained by treatment at a high temperature for a short time (71.7°C for at least 15 seconds or any equivalent combination) or by pasteurization process (using different time and temperature combinations to obtain an equivalent effect).

Purchase – milk purchased from Estonian agricultural producers. The value of purchased milk is expressed in purchase price, excl. value-added tax and transportation costs.

Recombined butter – a product produced from butteroil, dry non-fat milk-material and water with a milk fat content of at least 80% but less than 90%, a water content of up to 16% and a dry non-fat milk-material content of up to 2%.

Reduced-fat butter – butter with a milk-fat content of less than 80% by weight (excl. other fats, võideks and võidel).

Rendered butter – butter with a milk fat content exceeding 85% by weight of the product. The term covers, in addition to rendered butter as such, a number of other similar dehydrated butters which are known generically under various names, such as 'dehydrated butter', 'anhydrous butter', 'butteroil', 'butyric fat' (milk fat) and 'concentrated butter'.

Semi-skimmed milk – milk which has been subject to heat treatment and with fat content over 0.5% and less than 3.5%.

Skimmed milk – milk which has been subject to heat treatment and with fat content up to 0.5%.

Skimmed-milk powder – milk powder with a milk fat content of up to 1.5% by weight of the product.

Sterilized milk – milk which has been heated and sterilized in hermetically sealed wrappings or containers, the seal of which must remain intact. Milk must be of such preservability that no deterioration can be observed after it has spent 15 days in a closed container at the temperature of +30°C.

Uperized milk – milk produced by applying a continuous flow of heat using a high temperature for a short time (at least 135°C for not less than 1 second).

Whey – by-product obtained during the manufacture of cheese or casein. In the liquid state, whey contains natural constituents (on average 4.8% of lactose, 0.8% of protein and 0.2% of fats by weight of the product) which remain when casein and most fat have been removed from milk.

Whey butter – a product produced from whey cream or mix of whey cream and cream; with a milk fat content of at least 80% but less than 90%, a water content of up to 16% and a dry non-fat milk-material content of up to 2%.

Whole milk – milk which has been subject to heat treatment and with fat content naturally at least 3.5%.

3.5. Statistical unit Entity for which information is sought and for which statistics are ultimately compiled.


3.6. Statistical population The total membership or population or "universe" of a defined class of people, objects or events.

First buyers of milk directly from Estonian agricultural producers and milk processing establishments approved by the Veterinary and Food Board


List of buyers from the Estonian Agricultural Registers and Information Board and list of approved milk processing establishments from the Veterinary and Food Board

3.7. Reference area The country or geographic area to which the measured statistical phenomenon relates.

Estonia as a whole

3.8. Time coverage The length of time for which data are available.


3.9. Base period The period of time used as the base of an index number, or to which a constant series refers.

Not applicable

4. Unit of measure The unit in which the data values are measured.

Purchased milk and cream, volume of produced dairy products, milk fat content, quantity of input (whole milk, skimmed milk) – tonne

Value of milk and cream – euro

5. Reference period The period of time or point in time to which the measured observation is intended to refer.



6. Institutional mandate

6.1. Legal acts and other agreements Legal acts or other formal or informal agreements that assign responsibility as well as the authority to an agency for the collection, processing, and dissemination of statistics.


Council Directive 96/16/EC of 19 March 1996 on statistical surveys of milk and milk products

Directive 2003/107/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council of 5 December 2003 amending Council Directive 96/16/EC on statistical surveys of milk and milk products


97/80/EC: Commission Decision of 18 December 1996 laying down provisions for the implementation of Council Directive 96/16/EC on statistical surveys of milk and milk products


Not available

7. Confidentiality A property of data indicating the extent to which their unauthorised disclosure could be prejudicial or harmful to the interest of the source or other relevant parties.

7.1. Confidentiality - policy Legislative measures or other formal procedures which prevent unauthorised disclosure of data that identify a person or economic entity either directly or indirectly.

The dissemination of data collected for the purpose of producing official statistics is guided by the requirements provided for in § 32, § 34, § 35, § 38 of the Official Statistics Act.

7.2. Confidentiality - data treatment Rules applied for treating the data set to ensure statistical confidentiality and prevent unauthorised disclosure.

The treatment of confidential data is regulated by the Procedure for Protection of Data Collected and Processed by Statistics Estonia: https://www.stat.ee/66485.

8. Release policy Rules for disseminating statistical data to interested parties.

8.1. Release calendar The schedule of statistical release dates.

Notifications about the dissemination of statistics are published in the release calendar, which is available on the website. Every year on 1 October, the release times of the statistical database, news releases, main indicators by IMF SDDS and publications for the following year are announced in the release calendar (in the case of publications – the release month).

8.2. Release calendar access Access to the release calendar information.


8.3. User access The policy for release of the data to users, the scope of dissemination (e.g. to the public, to selected users), how users are informed that the data are being released, and whether the policy determines the dissemination of statistical data to all users.

All users have been granted equal access to official statistics: dissemination dates of official statistics are announced in advance and no user category (incl. Eurostat, state authorities and mass media) is provided access to official statistics before other users. Official statistics are first published in the statistical database. If there is also a news release, it is published simultaneously with data in the statistical database. Official statistics are available on the website at 8:00 a.m. on the date announced in the release calendar.

9. Frequency of dissemination The time interval at which the statistics are disseminated over a given time period.



10. Accessibility and clarity

10.1. News release Regular or ad-hoc press releases linked to the data.

Not published

10.2. Publications Regular or ad-hoc publications in which the data are made available to the public.

Not published

10.3. Online database Information about on-line databases in which the disseminated data can be accessed.

Data are published in the statistical database at http://andmebaas.stat.ee under the subject area “Economy / Agriculture / Agricultural production / Livestock production” in the following tables:

AG178: Purchase of milk and production of milk products

AG18: Purchase of milk (months)

AG19: Production of milk products (months)

10.4. Microdata access Information on whether micro-data are also disseminated.

The dissemination of data collected for the purpose of producing official statistics is guided by the requirements provided for in § 33, § 34, § 35, § 36, § 38 of the Official Statistics Act. Access to microdata and anonymisation of microdata are regulated by Statistics Estonia’s procedure for dissemination of confidential data for scientific purposes: https://www.stat.ee/dokumendid/51669.

10.5. Other References to the most important other data dissemination done.

Data serve as input for statistical activities 21207 “Economic accounts for agriculture” and 21213 “Supply balance sheets of agricultural products”.

10.6. Documentation on methodology Descriptive text and references to methodological documents available.

Council Directive 96/16/EC on statistical surveys of milk and milk products


Commission Decision 97/80/EC laying down provisions for the implementation of Council Directive 96/16/EC on statistical surveys of milk and milk products


10.7. Quality documentation Documentation on procedures applied for quality management and quality assessment.

Quality report submitted to Eurostat in accordance with Council Directive 96/16/EC

11. Quality management Systems and frameworks in place within an organisation to manage the quality of statistical products and processes.

11.1. Quality assurance All systematic activities implemented that can be demonstrated to provide confidence that the processes will fulfil the requirements for the statistical output.

To assure the quality of processes and products, Statistics Estonia applies the EFQM Excellence Model, the European Statistics Code of Practice and the Quality Assurance Framework of the European Statistical System (ESS QAF). Statistics Estonia is also guided by the requirements in § 7. “Principles and quality criteria of producing official statistics” of the Official Statistics Act.

11.2. Quality assessment Overall assessment of data quality, based on standard quality criteria.

Statistics Estonia performs all statistical activities according to an international model (Generic Statistical Business Process Model – GSBPM). According to the GSBPM, the final phase of statistical activities is overall evaluation using information gathered in each phase or sub-process; this information can take many forms, including feedback from users, process metadata, system metrics and suggestions from employees. This information is used to prepare the evaluation report which outlines all the quality problems related to the specific statistical activity and serves as input for improvement actions.

12. Relevance The degree to which statistical information meet current and potential needs of the users.

12.1. User needs Description of users and their respective needs with respect to the statistical data.

Ministry of Rural Affairs

Users’ suggestions and information about taking these into account are available on the website of Statistics Estonia at https://www.stat.ee/statistikatood.

12.2. User satisfaction Measures to determine user satisfaction.

Since 1996, Statistics Estonia has conducted reputation and user satisfaction surveys.

All results are available on the website at https://www.stat.ee/user-surveys.

12.3. Completeness The extent to which all statistics that are needed are available.

Methodology and organisation are in compliance with Council Directive 96/16/EC.

13. Accuracy and reliability Accuracy: closeness of computations or estimates to the exact or true values that the statistics were intended to measure.
Reliability: closeness of the initial estimated value to the subsequent estimated value.

13.1. Overall accuracy Assessment of accuracy, linked to a certain data set or domain, which is summarising the various components.

The type of survey and the data collection methods ensure sufficient coverage and timeliness.

13.2. Sampling error That part of the difference between a population value and an estimate thereof, derived from a random sample, which is due to the fact that only a subset of the population is enumerated.

Not applicable

13.3. Non-sampling error Error in survey estimates which cannot be attributed to sampling fluctuations.

Not measured

14. Timeliness and punctuality

14.1. Punctuality Time lag between the actual delivery of the data and the target date when it should have been delivered.

The data have been published at the time announced in the release calendar.

15. Coherence and comparability

15.1. Comparability - geographical The extent to which statistics are comparable between geographical areas.

The data are comparable with the data of other European Union countries because common methods are used.

15.2. Comparability - over time The extent to which statistics are comparable or reconcilable over time.

The data are comparable over time.

15.3. Coherence - cross domain The extent to which statistics are reconcilable with those obtained through other data sources or statistical domains.

The data are closely related to other agricultural statistics. Cross-domain coherence is ensured by using the same indicators from different sources. The data of milk production and milk buying-in prices serve as input for economic accounts for agriculture and the data of the production of milk products for supply balance sheets of agricultural products. Input data are received from the Agricultural Registers and Information Board (ARIB) and foreign trade statistics. Milk statistics also cover the data of agricultural small units.

15.4. Coherence - internal The extent to which statistics are consistent within a given data set.

Internal coherence of data is ensured by using common methodology in data collection as well as data aggregation. Higher-level aggregate data are calculated based on detailed data according to pre-defined procedures.

16. Cost and burden Cost associated with the collection and production of a statistical product and burden on respondents.

Cost of statistical activity 14.7 thousand euros (data for 2018)

Total time of filling in reports of the statistical activity, working days: 32.5

Average time of filling in the reports, hours per report:

Piima kokkuost ja kasutamine 0.9

Piimatooted 1.3

(data for 2016)

17. Data revision Any change in a value of a statistic released to the public.

17.1. Data revision - policy Policy aimed at ensuring the transparency of disseminated data, whereby preliminary data are compiled that are later revised.

The data revision policy and notification of corrections are described in the dissemination policy of Statistics Estonia at https://www.stat.ee/dissemination-policy.

17.2. Data revision - practice Information on the data revision practice.

The published data may be revised if the methodology is modified, errors are discovered, new or better data become available or when the data for the following month are available.

Only a few indicators of previous periods are revised.

18. Statistical processing

18.1. Source data Characteristics and components of the raw statistical data used for compiling statistical aggregates.


Total population is 33 objects. All objects are observed.


The data about the purchase of milk are received from the Agricultural Registers and Information Board.


Data from statistical activity 21203 “Livestock farming and meat production” and 22303 “Foreign trade” are used.

18.2. Frequency of data collection Frequency with which the source data are collected.



18.3. Data collection Systematic process of gathering data for official statistics.

Data are collected and the submission of questionnaires is monitored through eSTAT (the web channel for electronic data submission). The questionnaires have been designed for independent completion in eSTAT and include instructions and controls. The questionnaires and information about data submission are available on Statistics Estonia’s website at https://www.stat.ee/andmete-esitamine (in Estonian).

Data are collected with the official statistics monthly questionnaire “Purchase of milk and production of milk products” and annual questionnaire “Milk products”.

Data from the Agricultural Registers and Information Board are received by e-mail.

18.4. Data validation Process of monitoring the results of data compilation and ensuring the quality of statistical results.

Arithmetic and qualitative controls are used in the validation process, including comparison with the data of previous periods or other surveys and with administrative data sources.

18.5. Data compilation Operations performed on data to derive new information according to a given set of rules.

In the case of missing or unreliable data, estimate imputation based on established regulations will be used.

Variables and statistical units which were not collected but which are necessary for producing the output will be calculated. New variables are calculated by applying arithmetic conversion to already existing variables. This may be done repeatedly, the derived variable may, in turn, be based on previously derived new variables.

Microdata are aggregated to the level necessary for analysis. This includes aggregating the data according to the classification, and calculating various statistical measures, e.g. average, median, dispersion, etc.

The collected data are converted into statistical output. This includes calculating additional indicators.

18.6. Adjustment The set of procedures employed to modify statistical data to enable it to conform to national or international standards or to address data quality differences when compiling specific data sets.

Not applied

19. Comments Supplementary descriptive text which can be attached to data or metadata.

Not available