Title of statistical activity: Estonian Social Survey
Code of statistical activity: 40003
- Metadata update
- Statistical presentation
- Unit of measure
- Reference period
- Institutional mandate
- Release policy
- Frequency of dissemination
- Accessibility and clarity
- Quality management
- Accuracy and reliability
- Timeliness and punctuality
- Coherence and comparability
- Cost and burden
- Data revision
- Statistical processing
1.2. Contact organisation unit An addressable subdivision of an organisation.
Population and Social Statistics Department
1.3. Contact name The name of the contact points for the data or metadata.
1.5. Contact mail address The postal address of the contact points for the data or metadata.
78 Tiigi Str, 50410 Tartu, Estonia
1.6. Contact email address E-mail address of the contact points for the data or metadata.
1.7. Contact phone number The telephone number of the contact points for the data or metadata.
+372 625 8402
2.2. Metadata last update Date of last update of the content of the metadata.
3. Statistical presentation
Dwelling and living conditions, health, employment and job search, income, economic well-being, social exclusion, poverty risk, childcare, etc. The results are analysed by household composition. The output is based on the education, social status, sex, age and other important characteristics of household members.
Classification of Estonian administrative units and settlements (EHAK)
Estonian Classification of Economic Activities (EMTAK 2008) based on NACE Rev. 2
International Standard Classification of Occupations (ISCO 08)
National Standard Classification of Education (ISCED 2011)
Classification of fields of education and training 2013
International Standard Codes for the Representation of the Names of Countries (ISO 3166)
Codes for the Representation of Names of Languages (ISO 639-2)
Classification of Ethnicities
3.3. Sector coverage Main economic or other sectors covered by the statistics.
3.4. Statistical concepts and definitions Statistical characteristics of statistical observations.
At-risk-of-poverty rate – share of persons with an equivalised annual disposable income lower than the at-risk-of-poverty threshold.
At-risk-of-poverty threshold – 60% of the median equivalised annual disposable income of household members.
Disposable (net) income – a sum of income from wage labour and self-employment, property income, social transfers, regular inter-household cash transfers received and receipts for tax adjustment of which inter-household cash transfers paid, taxes on wealth and repayments for tax adjustment have been subtracted.
Equalised income – total household income, which is divided by a sum of equivalence scales of all household members.
Household – a group of people who live in a common dwelling (at the same address), share joint financial and/or food resources and whose members consider themselves to belong to the same household. A household may also consist of one member only.
Income quintile – one fifth of the population based on equivalised annual disposable income. The first or the lowest quintile contains one fifth of the population receiving the lowest income, the second quintile contains the next fifth and so on.
Households whose usual place of residence is in Estonia, and the members of these households, excluding persons living in institutions (children’s homes, care homes, monasteries, convents, etc.)
The list of permanent residents of Estonia based on the 2011 Population and Housing Census and the Population Register
Estonia as a whole
3.8. Time coverage The length of time for which data are available.
6. Institutional mandate
DIRECTLY APPLICABLE LEGAL ACTS
Commission Regulation (EC) No 1982/2003 of 21 October 2003 implementing Regulation (EC) No 1177/2003 of the European Parliament and of the Council concerning Community statistics on income and living conditions (EU-SILC) as regards the sampling and tracing rules
Regulation (EU) 2015/458 of 19 March 2015 amending Regulation (EC) No 657/2007 implementing Council Regulation (EC) No 1165/98 concerning short-term statistics as regards the establishment of European sample schemes
Regulation (EU) No 481/2010 of 1 June 2010 implementing Regulation (EC) No 1177/2003 of the European Parliament and of the Council concerning Community statistics on income and living conditions (EU-SILC) as regards the 2011 list of target secondary variables on intergenerational transmission of disadvantages
regulation (EC) No 315/2006 of 22 February 2006 implementing Regulation (EC) No 1177/2003 of the European Parliament and of the Council concerning Community statistics on income and living conditions (EU-SILC) as regards the list of target secondary variables relating to housing conditions
Commission Regulation (EC) No 16/2004 of 6 January 2004 implementing Regulation (EC) No 1177/2003 of the European Parliament and of the Council concerning Community statistics on income and living conditions (EU-SILC) as regards the list of target secondary variables relating to the "intergenerational transmission of poverty"
Commission Regulation (EU) No 112/2013 of 7 February 2013 implementing Regulation (EC) No 1177/2003 of the European Parliament and of the Council concerning Community statistics on income and living conditions (EU-SILC) as regards the 2014 list of target secondary variables on material deprivation
Council Regulation (EC) No 362/2008 of 14 April 2008 implementing Regulation (EC) No 1177/2003 of the European Parliament and of the Council concerning Community statistics on income and living conditions (EU-SILC) as regards the 2009 list of target secondary variables on material deprivation
Commission Regulation (EC) No 28/2004 of 5 January 2004 implementing Regulation (EC) No 1177/2003 of the European Parliament and of the Council concerning Community statistics on income and living conditions (EU-SILC) as regards the detailed content of intermediate and final quality reports
Commission Regulation (EC) No 1983/2003 of 7 November 2003 implementing Regulation (EC) No 1177/2003 of the European Parliament and of the Council concerning Community statistics on income and living conditions (EU-SILC) as regards the list of target primary variables
Regulation (EC) No 1177/2003 of the European Parliament and of the Council of 16 June 2003 concerning Community statistics on income and living conditions (EU-SILC)
OTHER LEGAL ACTS
Statistical Office of the European Union (Eurostat)
8.1. Release calendar The schedule of statistical release dates.
8.2. Release calendar access Access to the release calendar information.
10. Accessibility and clarity
10.1. News release Regular or ad-hoc press releases linked to the data.
The news release “Relative poverty” once a year. The news release can be viewed on the website at https://www.stat.ee/news-releases.
Data are published under the subject area “Social life / Income” in the statistical database at http://pub.stat.ee.
10.4. Microdata access Information on whether micro-data are also disseminated.
Public data files are available free of charge to anybody who want to do statistical analyses based on microdata: https://www.stat.ee/51900.
10.5. Other References to the most important other data dissemination done.
Data serve as input for statistical activities 40009 “Income, poverty and material deprivation”, 40205 “Living conditions”, 40611 “Integration of disabled persons”, 40612 “Health” and 41001 “Social exclusion – Laeken indicators”.
The Estonian Social Survey. Methodological Report, Statistics Estonia (2010)
The quality report sent to Eurostat is available at https://circabc.europa.eu/faces/jsp/extension/wai/navigation/container.jsp.
11.2. Quality assessment Overall assessment of data quality, based on standard quality criteria.
Standardised output has been achieved through the definition of specific formats (list and description of output variables; data formats) and the determination of fixed deadlines for data transmission.
Ministry of Social Affairs
The main users of ESS (EU-SILC) are:
- European Union institutions, government authorities (in Estonia, mostly the Ministry of Social Affairs – social protection and social inclusion issues), international organisations (e.g. OECD, UNICEF);
- annual yearbooks and other publications (incl. analytical compilations) of Statistics Estonia and Eurostat;
- researchers who have access to microdata;
- end users (consumers), incl. the media, who are interested in the statistics on living conditions, incomes and social inclusion in Estonia and the European Union.
12.2. User satisfaction Measures to determine user satisfaction.
Since 1996, Statistics Estonia has conducted reputation and user satisfaction surveys.
All results are available on the website at https://www.stat.ee/user-surveys.
12.3. Completeness The extent to which all statistics that are needed are available.
The data are complete and in compliance with the data composition requirements of EU-SILC regulation of the European Commission.
The accuracy of source data is monitored by assessing the methodological soundness of data sources and the adherence to the methodological recommendations.
The type of survey and the data collection methods ensure sufficient coverage and timeliness.
Sampling error estimates are calculated for all indicators found, but these are published only for more important indicators.
For more complicated survey designs, such as the Estonian Social Survey (ESS), ordinary statistical assumptions about independent and identical distribution of variables cannot be taken as basis. In the case of Laeken indicators, their nonlinearity also makes calculation of standard error more complicated. Additionally, it must be kept in mind that ordinary rules for calculating standard errors have been developed for samples without replacement. Concerning the ESS design, a sample with replacement is used at the level of households, because every household occurs in the sample frame with all its members.
Therefore, a two-step procedure is used for calculating standard errors for Laeken indicators. At first, the indicators are linearized by using linearization procedures developed by Eurostat. Then, the standard error is computed for the total sum of obtained new variable as a standard error of the respective indicator. The program Bascula is used for computing standard errors.
The standard errors are computed by resampling method; a number of sub-samples are taken from the initial sample and the standard errors are computed based on the variability of sub-sample estimates.
Although a person has the obligation to ensure correctness of residential address in the population register, there is some under-coverage of persons and households there. Assuming that all permanent residents of Estonia are registered in the Population Register and considering the share of inaccurate addresses in the Population Register, the rate of under-coverage among households is no more than 1–1.5%. The overall response rate is 61% for households interviewed for the first time and 88% for households interviewed for at least the second time. The detailed response rates are published in the Statistical Database.
Measurement errors may be caused by the questionnaire (wording of questions, questionnaire structure), respondents, interviewers and the data collection method. It is not possible to prevent all this type of measurement errors in social surveys, but Statistics Estonia has tried to limit their amount as much as possible.
The data are checked in three stages: initial check upon data entry during the interview (on the laptop), secondary check of newly received data at the office, and finally data cleaning.
The initial logic checks in the entry program are continually improved, which has reduced the number of errors during data entry.
The extreme values of all income components and total income are checked and handled separately.
14. Timeliness and punctuality
Preliminary data are published 160 days after the field-work.
Final data and microdata files are published 240 days after the end of the reference year (T + 240).
The data have been published at the time announced in the release calendar.
15. Coherence and comparability
The Estonian social survey is part of the European Union Statistics on Income and Living Conditions (EU-SILC), which is coordinated by Eurostat. An EU-SILC survey is conducted in all EU member states and in Ireland, Norway, Switzerland and Turkey based on a harmonized methodology that allows publication of internationally comparable statistics on poverty, inequality and income.
In 2004, Statistics Estonia launched the Estonian social survey general survey, which was preceded by pilot surveys in 2001, 2002 and 2003. The first longitudinal data were compiled in 2008 when the first panel of households exited the survey after having participated for four years.
Until 2007, income did not include money saved on goods produced solely for own consumption and on imputed rent, i.e. money that a household saves on rent by living in its own dwelling. After 2007, these types of income are included in the total household income.
Starting from 2007, mortgage interest payments are deducted from total household income, which in previous years were not taken into account in the calculation of income.
Differences in the methodology, especially in the data collection instrument, need to be taken into account when comparing the statistics with data from other sources.
15.4. Coherence - internal The extent to which statistics are consistent within a given data set.
The internal consistency of the data is ensured by the use of a common methodology for data collection and data aggregation.
Before the beginning of the Estonian social survey, incomes, and based on that poverty and inequality indicators were calculated on the basis of Household budget survey data.
Cost of statistical activity 384.7 thousand euros (data for 2018)
17.2. Data revision - practice Information on the data revision practice.
18. Statistical processing
The population consists of all private households whose usual place of residence is in Estonia and the members of these households who do not live in institutions (children’s homes, care homes, monasteries, convents, prisons, etc.). About 1% of the population of Estonia is excluded from the survey.
The sample includes 7,800 households. Systematic stratified random sampling is used. The stratification is based on place of residence. The 15 counties and Tallinn city are divided into four strata by population size: I – Tallinn; II – four bigger counties (Harju (excl. Tallinn), Ida-Viru, Pärnu and Tartu counties); III – ten smaller counties (Jõgeva, Järva, Lääne, Lääne-Viru, Põlva, Rapla, Saare, Valga, Viljandi and Võru counties); IV – Hiiu county.
The following data are received from the Estonian Tax and Customs Board: data on income tax returns for resident natural persons (form A), business income of resident natural person (form E), declaration of income and social tax, unemployment insurance premiums and contributions to mandatory funded pension (form TSD); and unemployment insurance benefits and taxes paid on income.
The following data are received from the Social Insurance Board: amount and time of payment of benefits, pensions and allowances (by type) paid on the basis of the State Pension Insurance Act, State Family Benefits Act, Parental Benefit Act and Social Benefits for Disabled Persons Act; data on percentage of loss of capacity for work (20, 30, etc. until 100) and on degree of disability (moderate, severe, profound); data on old-age pension, pension for incapacity for work, parental benefits, child allowances and maintenance allowance.
The following data are received from the Estonian Health Insurance Fund: amount of benefits for temporary incapacity for work, income tax withheld, number of calendar days and type of benefit; and delivery records.
The data received from the Estonian Tax and Customs Board, the register of registered unemployed persons and jobseekers and labour market services, State Pension Insurance Register and health insurance database are used to check the quality of the collected data regarding income.
Starting from 2013, the following data are used: from the Social Insurance Board old-age pension, pension for incapacity for work, survivor’s benefits, parental benefits, child allowances, maintenance allowance; from the Estonian Unemployment Insurance Fund unemployment insurance benefits, layoff benefits, employer insolvency benefits, enterprise creation support, unemployment benefits; since 2016, the data are obtained concerning partial and no work ability.
DATA FROM OTHER STATISTICAL ACTIVITIES
18.2. Frequency of data collection Frequency with which the source data are collected.
18.3. Data collection Systematic process of gathering data for official statistics.
Data are collected from individuals. The methods used for collecting the data include a personal interview (CAPI), in the case of recurring one-member households a telephone interview (CATI) or a web interview (CAWI), which the respondents complete independently. The interviews are conducted by Statistics Estonia's telephone interviewers with relevant training. The Survey Fieldwork Information System is used to manage and monitor data collection. The questionnaires have been designed to be filled in electronically by the respondent. The information related to data submission is available on Statistics Estonia's website at https://www.stat.ee/11757.
The data are collected with the official statistics questionnaires “Estonian Social Survey. Household questionnaire” and “Estonian Social Survey. Personal questionnaire”.
Data from Tax and Customs Board are received via an FTP-server and X-Road. Data from the Social Insurance Board and Estonian Health Insurance Fund are received via an FTP-server.
Arithmetic and qualitative controls are used in the validation process, including comparison with other data. Before data dissemination, the internal coherence of the data is checked.
In the case of missing or unreliable data, estimate imputation based on established regulations will be used. According to the regulation of the European Commission, all missing values of income variables should be imputed. As a rule, statistical imputation is the method used for that.
In case of within-household non-response, the persons who have not responded are imputed by using a person, characterized by similar variables, who is selected from among the responded persons by using the nearest neighbour method.
Variables and statistical units which were not collected but which are necessary for producing the output are calculated. New variables are calculated by applying arithmetic conversion to already existing variables. This may be done repeatedly, the derived variable may, in turn, be based on previously derived new variables.
For statistical units weights are calculated, which are used to expand the data of the sample survey to the total population.
The weights are calculated on the basis of design weights derived from inclusion probabilities. The weights, which are first adjusted to compensate for the bias caused by non-response and then calibrated to the population data, are used in calculating the final data. The basis of the calibration is the distribution of the population of Estonia by sex and age group and county on the 1st of January according to demographic data.
Microdata are aggregated to the level necessary for analysis. This includes summation of data according to the classification and calculating various statistical measures, e.g. average, median, dispersion, etc. The collected data are converted into statistical output. This includes calculating additional variables.