Title of statistical activity: Sustainable development indicators

Code of statistical activity: 50201

  1. Contact
  2. Metadata update
  3. Statistical presentation
  4. Unit of measure
  5. Reference period
  6. Institutional mandate
  7. Confidentiality
  8. Release policy
  9. Frequency of dissemination
  10. Accessibility and clarity
  11. Quality management
  12. Relevance
  13. Accuracy and reliability
  14. Timeliness and punctuality
  15. Coherence and comparability
  16. Cost and burden
  17. Data revision
  18. Statistical processing

1. Contact Individual or organisational contact points for the data or metadata, including information on how to reach the contact points.

1.1. Contact organisation The name of the organisation of the contact points for the data or metadata.

Statistics Estonia

1.2. Contact organisation unit An addressable subdivision of an organisation.

Economic and Environmental Statistics Department

1.3. Contact name The name of the contact points for the data or metadata.

Evelin Enno-Sakwan

1.4. Contact person function The area of technical responsibility of the contact, such as "methodology", "database management" or "dissemination".

Leading Statistician

1.5. Contact mail address The postal address of the contact points for the data or metadata.

51 Tatari Str, 10134 Tallinn, Estonia

1.6. Contact email address E-mail address of the contact points for the data or metadata.


1.7. Contact phone number The telephone number of the contact points for the data or metadata.

+372 625 9308

2. Metadata update The date on which the metadata element was inserted or modified in the database.

2.1. Metadata last certified Date of the latest certification provided by the domain manager to confirm that the metadata posted are still up-to-date, even if the content has not been amended.


2.2. Metadata last update Date of last update of the content of the metadata.


3. Statistical presentation

3.1. Data description Main characteristics of the data set described in an easily understandable manner, referring to the data and indicators disseminated.

Time series of indicators based on the UN Agenda 2030 for Sustainable Development are as follows:

1. End poverty in all its forms everywhere

2. End hunger, achieve food security and improved nutrition and promote sustainable agriculture

3. Ensure healthy lives and promote well-being for all at all ages

4. Ensure inclusive and equitable quality education and promote lifelong learning opportunities for all

5. Achieve gender equality and empower all women and girls

6. Ensure availability and sustainable management of water and sanitation for all

7. Ensure access to affordable, reliable, sustainable and modern energy for all

8. Promote sustained, inclusive and sustainable economic growth, full and productive employment and decent work for all

9. Build resilient infrastructure, promote inclusive and sustainable industrialization and foster innovation

10. Reduce inequality within and among countries

11. Make cities and human settlements inclusive, safe, resilient and sustainable

12. Ensure sustainable consumption and production patterns

13. Take urgent action to combat climate change and its impacts

14. Conserve and sustainably use the oceans, seas and marine resources for sustainable development

15. Protect, restore and promote sustainable use of terrestrial ecosystems, sustainably manage forests, combat desertification, and halt and reverse land degradation and halt biodiversity loss

16. Promote peaceful and inclusive societies for sustainable development, provide access to justice for all and build effective, accountable and inclusive institutions at all levels

17. Strengthen the means of implementation and revitalize the global partnership for sustainable development

In addition time series of indicators are in line with the sustainable development goals described in the „Sustainable Estonia 21“ :

1. Viability of the Estonian cultural space

2. Growth of welfare

3. Coherent society

4. Ecological balance

3.2. Classification system Arrangement or division of objects into groups based on characteristics which the objects have in common.

Not used

3.3. Sector coverage Main economic or other sectors covered by the statistics.

Data for indicators are compiled on a cross-sectoral level.

3.4. Statistical concepts and definitions Statistical characteristics of statistical observations.

Absolute poverty rate

Relative poverty rate

Gross household saving rate

People at risk of poverty or social exclusion

Agricultural productivity

Share of organic agricultural area in relation to the total utilised agricultural area

Share of organic agricultural production in total agricultural production

Pesticides placed on the market

Use of fertilisers

Life expectancy

Healthy life years

Obesity rate

Deaths due to external causes of morbidity and mortality

Avoidable mortality

Death due to chronic diseases

Cases of HIV, tuberculosis, hepatitis B and hepatitis C


New cases of mental and behavioural disorders per 100,000 inhabitants

Alcohol consumption

Smoking prevalence

Participation in lifelong learning

Tertiary education

Share of 16–74-year-olds with digital competence

Share of students with the highest level of performance

Share of students in hobby schools

Share of young people with basic education or lower level of education who will not continue their studies

Gender pay gap

Women in leadership positions

Time use of men and women

The share of wastewater that is treated according to the requirements in total collected wastewater

Share of consumers who receive proper drinking water from the public water supply

Groundwater extraction

Status of surface water

Energy intensity of the economy

Energy dependency rate

Share of energy expenses from total household expenses

Share of renewable energy in total final energy consumption

Employment rate

Long-term unemployment rate

Young people neither in education nor in employment and training

Real GDP growth

Resource productivity


Share of expenditures on research and development of the GDP

Research and development personnel

Share of connections with the speed of 100 Mbp/s or faster of the total number of fixed Internet connections

Rate of Internet use

Modal split of freight transport and passenger transport by mode of transport

Income per household member

Income inequality

Self-reported unmet need for medical care

Proportion of architectural monuments in good and satisfactory status

Number of people injured or killed in traffic accidents in cities

Fine particulate matter PM10 and PM2.5 in ambient air

Satisfaction with the status of dwellings

People commuting work by public transport or by bicycle, or on foot

Waste generation

Recycling rate of municipal waste

The share of hazardous waste of for recovery

Companies and institutions implementing environmental management systems

Volume of oil shale mining

Greenhouse gas emissions per GDP

Greenhouse gas emissions from the energy sector

Greenhouse gas emissions from the transport sector

Proportion of marine protected areas

Spawning stock biomass of fish species populations used for commercial purposes

Status of costal waters

Share of protected natural objects from the land territory

Share of protected forest land in the total forest land

Emission of acidifying pollutants

Number of habitat types in improved or unchanged status

Number of species in improved or unchanged status

Corruption perceptions index

Number of persons with undetermined citizenship

Share of people who consider their neighbourhood safe

Number of people killed due to assault

Number of people who have been victims of violence per year

Share of official development assistance from gross national income

Structural balance of the consolidated budget of the general government sector

Share of general government debt in the GDP

Share of environmental taxes in total tax revenues

Natural increase

Total fertility rate

Speakers of Estonian language

Visitors of cultural institutions

Share of persons participated in cultural activities

3.5. Statistical unit Entity for which information is sought and for which statistics are ultimately compiled.

Not applicable

3.6. Statistical population The total membership or population or "universe" of a defined class of people, objects or events.

Not applicable


Not applicable

3.7. Reference area The country or geographic area to which the measured statistical phenomenon relates.

Estonia as a whole

Estonian counties

3.8. Time coverage The length of time for which data are available.


3.9. Base period The period of time used as the base of an index number, or to which a constant series refers.

Not applicable

4. Unit of measure The unit in which the data values are measured.

Percent, kg of oil equivalents per 1,000 euros, grams of CO₂ per kilometre, tonnes of CO₂ equivalent per person, kg per inhabitant, euros per inhabitant, percent above/below EU average, percent of GDP, ratio, year, number per 100,000 inhabitants, per mille, number per female, m³/ha, thousand m³, tonnes, hectares, thousand euros per person employed, number per 1,000 inhabitants, litre per inhabitant, 1,000 m³

5. Reference period The period of time or point in time to which the measured observation is intended to refer.


6. Institutional mandate

6.1. Legal acts and other agreements Legal acts or other formal or informal agreements that assign responsibility as well as the authority to an agency for the collection, processing, and dissemination of statistics.


Not available


Not available


Not available

7. Confidentiality A property of data indicating the extent to which their unauthorised disclosure could be prejudicial or harmful to the interest of the source or other relevant parties.

7.1. Confidentiality - policy Legislative measures or other formal procedures which prevent unauthorised disclosure of data that identify a person or economic entity either directly or indirectly.

The dissemination of data collected for the purpose of producing official statistics is guided by the requirements provided for in § 34 and § 35 of the Official Statistics Act.

7.2. Confidentiality - data treatment Rules applied for treating the data set to ensure statistical confidentiality and prevent unauthorised disclosure.

Not applicable

8. Release policy Rules for disseminating statistical data to interested parties.

8.1. Release calendar The schedule of statistical release dates.

Notifications about the dissemination of statistics are published in the release calendar, which is available on the website. Every year on 1 October, the release times of the statistical database, news releases, main indicators by IMF SDDS and publications for the following year are announced in the release calendar (in the case of publications – the release month).

8.2. Release calendar access Access to the release calendar information.


8.3. User access The policy for release of the data to users, the scope of dissemination (e.g. to the public, to selected users), how users are informed that the data are being released, and whether the policy determines the dissemination of statistical data to all users.

All users have been granted equal access to official statistics: dissemination dates of official statistics are announced in advance and no user category (incl. Eurostat, state authorities and mass media) is provided access to official statistics before other users. Official statistics are first published in the statistical database. If there is also a news release, it is published simultaneously with data in the statistical database. Official statistics are available on the website at 8:00 a.m. on the date announced in the release calendar.

9. Frequency of dissemination The time interval at which the statistics are disseminated over a given time period.


10. Accessibility and clarity

10.1. News release Regular or ad-hoc press releases linked to the data.

Not published

10.2. Publications Regular or ad-hoc publications in which the data are made available to the public.

Not published

10.3. Online database Information about on-line databases in which the disseminated data can be accessed.

Data are published under the subject area “Sustainable development” in the statistical database at http://pub.stat.ee.

10.4. Microdata access Information on whether micro-data are also disseminated.

Not applicable

10.5. Other References to the most important other data dissemination done.

Not used

10.6. Documentation on methodology Descriptive text and references to methodological documents available.

The indicators and methodology are described in the report outlining the results of the implementation of “Sustainable Estonia 21”, the Estonian national strategy for sustainable development.


The selection of indicators is also based on the UN Agenda 2030 for Sustainable Development and the global Sustainable Development Goals stated in the Agenda.


10.7. Quality documentation Documentation on procedures applied for quality management and quality assessment.

A report has been prepared describing the relevance and quality of the sustainable development indicators for Estonia.

11. Quality management Systems and frameworks in place within an organisation to manage the quality of statistical products and processes.

11.1. Quality assurance All systematic activities implemented that can be demonstrated to provide confidence that the processes will fulfil the requirements for the statistical output.

To assure the quality of processes and products, Statistics Estonia applies the EFQM Excellence Model, the European Statistics Code of Practice and the Quality Assurance Framework of the European Statistical System (ESS QAF). Statistics Estonia is also guided by the requirements in § 7. “Principles and quality criteria of producing official statistics” of the Official Statistics Act.

11.2. Quality assessment Overall assessment of data quality, based on standard quality criteria.

Statistics Estonia performs all statistical activities according to an international model (Generic Statistical Business Process Model – GSBPM). According to the GSBPM, the final phase of statistical activities is overall evaluation using information gathered in each phase or sub-process; this information can take many forms, including feedback from users, process metadata, system metrics and suggestions from employees. This information is used to prepare the evaluation report which outlines all the quality problems related to the specific statistical activity and serves as input for improvement actions.

12. Relevance The degree to which statistical information meet current and potential needs of the users.

12.1. User needs Description of users and their respective needs with respect to the statistical data.

Government Office

The Commission for Sustainable Development

Users’ suggestions and information about taking these into account are available on the website of Statistics Estonia at https://www.stat.ee/statistikatood.

12.2. User satisfaction Measures to determine user satisfaction.

Since 1996, Statistics Estonia has conducted reputation and user satisfaction surveys.

All results are available on the website at https://www.stat.ee/user-surveys.

12.3. Completeness The extent to which all statistics that are needed are available.

The list of indicators has been established by the report on the results of the implementation of the Estonian National Strategy on Sustainable Development “Sustainable Estonia 21”.

13. Accuracy and reliability Accuracy: closeness of computations or estimates to the exact or true values that the statistics were intended to measure.
Reliability: closeness of the initial estimated value to the subsequent estimated value.

13.1. Overall accuracy Assessment of accuracy, linked to a certain data set or domain, which is summarising the various components.

The accuracy of the data varies.

13.2. Sampling error That part of the difference between a population value and an estimate thereof, derived from a random sample, which is due to the fact that only a subset of the population is enumerated.

Not applicable

13.3. Non-sampling error Error in survey estimates which cannot be attributed to sampling fluctuations.

Not measured

14. Timeliness and punctuality

14.1. Timeliness Length of time between data availability and the event or phenomenon they describe.

The data are published 345 days after the end of the reference year (T + 345).

14.2. Punctuality Time lag between the actual delivery of the data and the target date when it should have been delivered.

The data have been published at the time announced in the release calendar.

15. Coherence and comparability

15.1. Comparability - geographical The extent to which statistics are comparable between geographical areas.

The indicators are nationally and internationally comparable. However, comparability varies for some indicators.

Estimates of data comparability are included in the final report of the survey on the quality and relevance of the sustainable development indicators used in Estonia.

15.2. Comparability - over time The extent to which statistics are comparable or reconcilable over time.

The data are comparable over time.

15.3. Coherence - cross domain The extent to which statistics are reconcilable with those obtained through other data sources or statistical domains.

When comparing statistics with data from other sources, differences in methodology, especially in the data collection method should be considered.

15.4. Coherence - internal The extent to which statistics are consistent within a given data set.

The outputs of the statistical activity are coherent.

16. Cost and burden Cost associated with the collection and production of a statistical product and burden on respondents.

Cost of statistical activity 27.6 thousand euros (data for 2018)

17. Data revision Any change in a value of a statistic released to the public.

17.1. Data revision - policy Policy aimed at ensuring the transparency of disseminated data, whereby preliminary data are compiled that are later revised.

The data revision policy and notification of corrections are described in the dissemination policy of Statistics Estonia https://www.stat.ee/dissemination-policy.

17.2. Data revision - practice Information on the data revision practice.

The published data may be revised if the methodology is modified, errors are discovered, new or better data become available.

18. Statistical processing

18.1. Source data Characteristics and components of the raw statistical data used for compiling statistical aggregates.


Not used


Data are received from the Estonian Environment Agency, Environmental Board, Ministry of Justice, Ministry of the Environment, Ministry of Education and Research, Ministry of Social Affairs, Ministry of Economic Affairs and Communications, Ministry of Finance, National Institute for Health Development, National Heritage Board of Estonia. Data from the databases of Eurostat, European Environment Agency, World Bank, World Health Organization, Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development, International Organization for Standardization are also used.


Data from statistical activities 10106 “Environmental goods and services sector accounts”, 10104 “Environmental taxes accounts”, 10302 “Water use”, 10304 “Forest resources”, 10401 “Waste management”, 10503 “Sales of pesticides”, 20206 “Energy consumption and production (annual)”, 21001 “Forestry”, 10601 “Material flow accounts“, 21108 “Gender pay gap”, 21207 “Economic accounts for agriculture”, 21214 “Crop farming”, 21303 “Government finance”, 21401 “National accounts (annual)”, 21701 “Research and development”, 21702 “Innovation in enterprises”, 30101 “Population”, 30205 “Vital events. Deaths and causes of death”, 30206 “Vital events. Births”, 40304 “Hobby education”, 40310 “Formal education”, 40402 “Film”, 40407 “Museum”, 40409 “Amateur cultural activities”, 40410 “Public library”, 40414 “Theatre”, 40422 “Participation in culture”, 40416 “Employment and financial statistics of the cultural sector“, 40612 “Health”, 40701 “Labour Force Survey” and 40802 “Crime” are used.

18.2. Frequency of data collection Frequency with which the source data are collected.


18.3. Data collection Systematic process of gathering data for official statistics.

Data are collected from the databases of Eurostat, European Environment Agency, World Health Organization, World Bank, Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development and International Organization for Standardization.

In addition, data are also received from the Estonian Agricultural Registers and Information Board, Environmental Board, Ministry of Education and Research, National Institute for Health Development, National Heritage Board, Ministry of Justice, Ministry of Social Affairs, Ministry of Environment, Ministry of Economic Affairs and Communications and Ministry of Finance.

Administrative data are either obtained from the websites of the data sources or received by e-mail.

18.4. Data validation Process of monitoring the results of data compilation and ensuring the quality of statistical results.

The data are compared with the data of previous periods or other surveys.

18.5. Data compilation Operations performed on data to derive new information according to a given set of rules.

Mainly aggregated data from other statistical activities and administrative sources are used. Variables which were not collected but which are necessary for producing the output are also calculated. New variables are calculated by applying arithmetic conversion to already existing variables. This may be done repeatedly; the derived variable may, in turn, be based on previously derived new variables.

18.6. Adjustment The set of procedures employed to modify statistical data to enable it to conform to national or international standards or to address data quality differences when compiling specific data sets.

Not applicable

19. Comments Supplementary descriptive text which can be attached to data or metadata.

Not available