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PHC 2011: households’ living conditions have improved since the previous census

25 October 2013   PDF   DOC

According to the data of the 2011 Population and Housing Census (PHC 2011), 70% of private households live in dwellings with all basic amenities. In the 2000 census, that share was 65%. The availability of comfort characteristics in the dwellings inhabited by households has improved significantly in the last decade.

According to the 2011 census, 69.5% of private households in Estonia live in apartments. This share was 71.3% during the previous census. The share of households living in small residential buildings (one-family dwellings, semi-detached houses) has increased slightly (from 28.7% to 30.5%). A very large share of lone-parent and one-person households live in apartments (76.2% and 76.1%, respectively). Compared to other types of household, multi-family households (e.g. when grandparents live together with the younger generations) and married couples have a bigger share of those who live in small residential buildings (45.6% and 39.9%, respectively).

79.1% of households live in dwellings that they own. The share of dwelling owners has increased by about one percentage point compared to the 2000 census. The share of owners is the highest among multi-family households and married couples (93.5% and 90.2%, respectively).
Although the majority of households in Estonia still live in relatively old buildings, the PHC 2011 data indicate that there is a tendency to move into newer buildings. The number of households living in older dwellings (built before 1971) is decreasing, while the number of households living in newer dwellings (built in 1971 or later) is increasing. 9.5% of households live in dwellings built in 2001 or later.

The availability of basic amenities and comfort characteristics in dwellings has improved significantly in 11 years. In 2000, 85.6% of households had piped water supply, 74.9% had a flush toilet, 70.9% had a bath or shower and 67.9% had central or electrical heating. According to the 2011 census, 94.6% of households have piped water supply, 88.3% have a flush toilet, 87.1% have a bath or shower and 71.5% have central or electrical heating in their dwelling.

As a rule, a dwelling is inhabited by one household. Dwellings with one household account for 93.3% of conventional dwellings with usual residents. These dwellings have, on average, 31.4 square metres of area per inhabitant and 1.28 rooms per inhabitant. In the 2000 census, the corresponding indicators were 24.4 square metres and 1.08 rooms per inhabitant.

Households’ living conditions by household structure, 2011 (%)
Household structure Living in
a small
Renting Average
inhabitant in
bath or
central or
All households 30.5 9.2 31.4 94.6 88.3 87.1 71.5
One-person household 23.9 11.7 54.1 92.1 85.1 83.0 70.5
non-family household
28.8 13.7 30.0 91.1 83.4 82.1 68
Married couple
(incl. couples with children)
39.9 3.3 28.7 96.9 91.0 90.7 72.7
Cohabiting couple
(incl. couples with children)
33.0 15.0 25.0 96.0 90.6 90.0 70.3
Lone parent with children 23.8 9.5 26.8 95.4 89.6 88.4 74.1
Multi-family household 45.6 3.4 18.9 95.8 88.3 88.2 67.3

Private household is a household living in a dwelling. Private households do not include persons who at the census moment lived permanently in an institutional household (e.g. in a social welfare or penal institution) or were homeless.

This concludes the publication of the results of PHC 2011. The published data can be accessed via www.REL2011.ee.

The 11th population census in Estonia was conducted from 31 December 2011 until 31 March 2012. Previous censuses were carried out in 1881, 1897, 1922, 1934, 1941, 1959, 1970, 1979, 1989 and 2000. The next population census will be conducted in Estonia in 2020/2021.

For further information:

Anu Tõnurist
Leading Statistician
Population and Social Statistics Department
Statistics Estonia
Tel +372 625 9159

More detailed data have been published in the Statistical Database.

Press contacts

Anu Ots
Communication Chief
anu dot ots at stat dot ee
tel +372 625 9296
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