Economically inactive population
Statistical activity code: 40719
Inactive persons aged 15–74 by different characteristics
Number of inactive persons
Classification of Estonian administrative units and settlements (EHAK)
Estonian Classification of Economic Activities (EMTAK 2008) based on NACE Rev. 2
International Standard Classification of Occupations (ISCO 08)
National Standard Classification of Education (ISCED 2011)
Classification of fields of education and training 2013
Classification of Ethnicities 2011
International Standard Codes for the Representation of the Names of Countries (ISO 3166)
Codes for the Representation of Names of Languages (ISO 639-2)
Discouraged person – a person who would like to work and would be immediately available for work if there was work, but who is not an active job seeker because he or she has lost hope of finding a job.
Economically active population / labour force – persons who wish and are able to work (total of employed and unemployed persons).
Economically passive / inactive population – persons who do not wish or are not able to work.
Employed – a person who during the reference period:
- worked and was paid as a wage earner, entrepreneur or a free-lancer;
- worked without direct payment in a family enterprise or on his/her own farm;
- was temporarily absent from work.
Employment rate – the share of employed persons in working-age population.
Household – a group of people who live in a common dwelling (at the same address) and share joint financial and/or food resources. Persons included in the household are members of the household. A household may also consist of one member only.
Labour force participation rate / activity rate – the share of the labour force (total number of the employed and unemployed) in the working-age population.
Underemployed – a person who works part-time, but would like to work more and is available for additional work (within two weeks).
Unemployed – a person who fulfils the following three conditions:
- he or she is without work (does not work anywhere at the moment and is not temporarily absent from work);
- he or she is currently (within two weeks) available for work if there was work;
- he or she is actively seeking work.
Unemployment rate – the share of unemployed persons in the labour force.
Working-age/labourage population – the basis for examining the economic activity of the population (Labour Force Survey object) is the population between the ages of 15 and 74 in the reference week.
Permanent residents of Estonia aged 15–74
A list of 15–74-year-old permanent residents of Estonia compiled based on the population and housing census (2011) and the population register
Estonia as a whole – quarterly data
Counties – main annual indicators
The dissemination of data collected for the purpose of producing official statistics is guided by the requirements provided for in § 32, § 34, § 35, § 38 of the Official Statistics Act.
The treatment of confidential data is regulated by the Procedure for Protection of Data Collected and Processed by Statistics Estonia: http://www.stat.ee/66485.
Notifications about the dissemination of statistics are published in the release calendar, which is available on the website. Every year on 1 October, the release times of the statistical database, news releases, main indicators by IMF SDDS and publications for the following year are announced in the release calendar (in the case of publications – the release month).
All users have been granted equal access to official statistics: dissemination dates of official statistics are announced in advance and no user category (incl. Eurostat, state authorities and mass media) is provided access to official statistics before other users. Official statistics are first published in the statistical database. If there is also a news release, it is published simultaneously with data in the statistical database. Official statistics are available on the website at 8:00 a.m. on the date announced in the release calendar.
The news release “Employment and unemployment” once a quarter. The news release can be viewed on the website at http://www.stat.ee/news-releases.
Data are published under the subject area “Social life / Labour market” in the statistical database at http://pub.stat.ee.
The dissemination of data collected for the purpose of producing official statistics is guided by the requirements provided for in § 33, § 34, § 35, § 36, § 38 of the Official Statistics Act.
Access to microdata and anonymisation of microdata are regulated by Statistics Estonia’s procedure for dissemination of confidential data for scientific purposes: http://www.stat.ee/dokumendid/51669.
Public use data files are available free of charge to anybody interested in doing statistical analysis based on microdata:
EU LFS (European Union Labour Force Survey)
“Estonian Labour Force Survey. Methodology”, Statistics Estonia (2012)
Data on the quality of the population, sample and respondents are published in the Statistical Database.
“Estonian Labour Force Survey. Methodology” http://www.stat.ee/methodology
To assure the quality of processes and products, Statistics Estonia applies the EFQM Excellence Model, the European Statistics Code of Practice and the Quality Assurance Framework of the European Statistical System (ESS QAF). Statistics Estonia is also guided by the requirements in § 7. “Principles and quality criteria of producing official statistics” of the Official Statistics Act.
Statistics Estonia performs all statistical activities according to an international model (Generic Statistical Business Process Model – GSBPM). According to the GSBPM, the final phase of statistical activities is overall evaluation using information gathered in each phase or sub-process; this information can take many forms, including feedback from users, process metadata, system metrics and suggestions from employees. This information is used to prepare the evaluation report which outlines all the quality problems related to the specific statistical activity and serves as input for improvement actions.
Ministry of Economic Affairs and Communications
Ministry of Rural Affairs
Ministry of Finance
Ministry of Social Affairs
Institute of International
University of Tartu
Eesti Pank (central bank of Estonia)
Users’ suggestions and information about taking these into account are available on the website of Statistics Estonia at http://www.stat.ee/statistikatood.
Since 1996, Statistics Estonia has conducted reputation and user satisfaction surveys.
All results are available on the website at http://www.stat.ee/user-surveys.
The data are complete and correspond to the data composition requirements prescribed by the European Commission regulation on labour force survey statistics.
The accuracy of source data is monitored by assessing the methodological soundness of data sources and the adherence to the methodological recommendations.
The type of survey and the data collection methods ensure sufficient coverage and timeliness.
For main indicators of the labour force survey, the standard errors and relative standard errors are published in the Statistical Database.
Statistics Estonia aims to reduce the amount of non-sampling errors through continuous methodological and survey process improvements, e.g. by adopting computer-assisted data collection which helps to prevent coding and typing errors.
Information on response rates by group is available in the Statistical Database.
Data in Estonia are comparable by counties, regions and Tallinn. Data in Europe are comparable across countries. For example, data on unemployment and employment can be compared.
The survey module “Reconciliation between work and family life” was conducted as a part of Estonian Labour Force Survey in 2005 and 2010. The Estonian Labour Force Survey is based on the definitions developed by the International Labour Organisation (ILO) and they enable to compare the collected data to the data of other countries.
Statistics Estonia conducted the first Labour Force Survey at the beginning of 1995 (ELFS 95). In 1997–1999, the survey was conducted in the 2nd quarter. Starting from the year 2000, the Labour Force Survey is a continuous survey providing quarterly and annual results.
Starting from the 1st quarter of 2015, Statistics Estonia will not publish the quarterly Labour Force Survey data on economic activities and occupations; the respective data will be published once a year. Statistics Estonia will continue to publish quarterly employment data by economic activity as part of business statistics, national accounts statistics and the statistics on job vacancies and labour turnover.
Up to 2002, the respondents were classified as falling in or out of the working age population only according to the year of birth: the working age population is the population between the ages of 15 and 74 on 1 January of the reference year. Since 2002, the date of birth is taken into account then calculating the age of the respondent: the working age population is the population between the ages of 15 and 74 in the reference week. As since 2002 the age of the respondent is calculated according to the date of birth the data for age group “16 until pension age” are exactly calculated as well. Before 2002 the pension age was calculated only in full-years.
Since 2017 the general pension age is 65 years. Transitional period is established for people born in 1954–1960. For them pension age will gradually increase by 3 months for every birth year and reach to 65 years in 2026.
The data of the ELFS 95 and ELFS 97 survey week are based on the population who on 1 January of the survey year were 15–74 years old and the data in the retrospective part also covers the same part of the population who were in different age groups in the previous years. Thus, in order to guarantee the comparability of the data of different years and the usual presentation of the data in 5-year age groups, the retrospectively collected data for 1990–1996 have been presented for the population aged 15–69.
There are three data sources for measurement of unemployment in Estonia: the Estonian Labour Force Survey (ELFS) of Statistics Estonia, Eurostat’s harmonized unemployment statistics and Estonian Unemployment Insurance Fund’s registered unemployment data. The methodology of data collection and publication frequency are different for these data sources. Read more from “Estonian Labour Force Survey. Methodology”, chapter 6.1. at http://www.stat.ee/methodology.
The auxiliary employment indicators for national accounts according to the European System of Accounts (ESA) definitions are also calculated on the basis of ELFS. When using the data of ELFS and national accounts, differences arising from definitions and concepts should be taken into consideration.
The Estonian Labour Force Survey (LSF) 95 and LSF 97 survey week data are about persons who on 1 January of the survey year were 15–74 years old and data in the retrospective part have been collected from the same persons who in previous years were in other age groups. Hence, retrospective data on 1989–1996 were about those aged 15–69, to ensure comparability of data and presentation of population data by five-year age groups. From 1998 to the second quarter of 2000, also people aged 75 were interviewed in the labour force survey. Therefore, retrospective data on 1997–1999 cover 15–74 year-old people. All people over 74 years of age are regarded as inactive since 1997; for earlier years - people over 69. The expansion of the labour force survey data is based on the estimated population number as at 1 January of the survey year. The expansion factors are calculated by county, sex and 5-year age groups. Data published in the database on 1990–1999 have been amended using the adjusted population number in the years between the censuses of 1989 and 2000. Data on 2000–2013 have been corrected using the number of population recalculated on the basis of the 2011 census and registry data (see methodology for recalculating the population number at http://www.stat.ee/75541 (in Estonian) and methodology for recalculating the labour-force survey data at http://www.stat.ee/76254 (in Estonian)).
Due to rounding, the sums received by adding numbers in tables are not always equal with the total. The difference can be up to some last decimal places.
DATA FROM OTHER STATISTICAL ACTIVITIES
Data from statistical activity 40701 “Labour Force Survey” are used
Arithmetic and qualitative controls are used in the validation process, including comparison with other data. Before data dissemination, the internal coherence of the data is checked.
Individual data are aggregated to the level necessary for analysis, and additional indicators are calculated. In order to produce statistical output, the results are weighted and estimates for the total population are calculated.