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Definitions

 

Area of the dwelling

Area of the dwelling means the total floor area of all rooms and auxiliary premises (kitchen, vestibule, cloakroom, hallway, toilet room, sauna that is within the dwelling, pantry, interstice, bathroom, storeroom, porch, integrated wall closets).

The area of the dwelling does not include cellars, garages (incl. in private houses), boiler rooms, attics (if they are not suitable for permanent habitation) and common rooms (such as stairways, corridors, saunas, etc.) in buildings with multiple dwellings. Open areas (loggias, balconies and terraces) are not included in the area of the dwelling. However, if such areas have been closed in and insulated, they should be added to the total area of the dwelling.

If a household lives in an uncompleted residential building, enter the area of the finished part of the house.

Branch of economic activity

Branch of economic activity - principal area of activity of the company of the main place of work.

If a person is working in a subordinate unit with an area of activity different from the principal area of activity of the company/institution, note the area of activity of the subordinate unit in addition to the area of activity of the company/institution. For example, the principal area of activity of a furniture factory is production of furniture, while the area of activity of a factory shop is retail sale of furniture.

In case of lease workers, note the area of activity of the company/institution/subordinate unit where the person actually worked during the week in question (19-25 December 2011) or during the last period of employment; do not note the area of activity of the labour lease company.

Comfort characteristics

Comfort characteristics – availability of kitchen (kitchenette), water supply system, sewage disposal system, bath (shower) sauna, flush toilet, heating options in the dwelling.

A separate kitchen – to be noted if the kitchen has at least 4 m2 of floor area or is at least 2 m wide, includes equipment for food preparation (cooking stove, sink), and generally also has a window. Note this option if the kitchen is separated from other rooms with a permanent wall.

Kitchen forms a part of the room or there is a kitchenette – to be noted if the dwelling includes:

  • a part of the room with equipment for food preparation (cooking stove, sink), or
  • a room of less than 4 m2 in size with a cooking stove and/or sink.

The dwelling has no kitchen or kitchenette – to be noted in all other cases (e.g., kitchen is located outside the dwelling in a dormitory-type building (a kitchen shared by several households); a small movable electrical stove or microwave oven is the only equipment for food preparation in the dwelling, etc.).

Water supply – “Yes” to be noted if cold water is supplied to the dwelling through a pipeline and a water tap is used. If the dwelling has a water supply but it has been disconnected, e.g., due to a failure, the answer should still be affirmative. However, if the water supply has been unusable for a long time (a year or more), the answer should indicate that there is no water supply.

Bath or a shower – “Yes” to be noted if the dwelling includes a bath or shower cabin (incl. in a sauna inside the dwelling) that is connected to a water supply and sewerage system (incl. a collection tank). The method of hot water production is irrelevant in this context. If the bath or shower is located outside the dwelling in a shared room (e.g., in dormitory-type buildings), note the answer “No”.

Sauna – “Yes” to be noted if the sauna is located in the dwelling or in the same building as the dwelling of the household. The sauna may also be located in a separate building on the same residential lot. Common saunas in apartment buildings are not included in this answer. However, if a sauna is located in a box of a terraced or semi-detached house and is shared only by a couple of families, the answer should also be “Yes”.

This question is asked if there are no other washing opportunities (bath, shower) in the dwelling. Any type of sauna (incl. steam or infrared sauna) should be counted.

Flush toilet – to be noted if the dwelling includes a flush toilet, which is connected to a water supply and sewerage system (incl. a collection tank).

Dry toilet – to be noted if the toilet in the dwelling is not connected to a water supply and sewerage system.

The dwelling has no flush toilet or dry toilet – to be noted if no flush toilet or dry toilet is located within the dwelling. This option should be noted, for instance, in case of shared toilets in a house or outdoor toilets, because they are not located within the dwelling.

Note the heating system mainly in use. If several options are used in roughly equal measures, note the option that is higher on the list. If the dwelling has some kind of a heating system but it is not used, e.g., due to a technical fault or repairs, the answer should still be affirmative. However, if the former heating system has been unusable for a long time (a year or more), the answer should indicate that there is no heating option.

Distant central heating – to be noted if the dwelling is normally heated from a central heating power station outside the building. In exceptional cases, where a boiler plant distributing heat to other houses is located in one residential building, this option should be selected for this building as well. In case of distant central heating, the heating system always services several buildings.

Local central heating (with boiler or heat pump) – to be noted if the dwelling is heated by a central heating system located in the same building (the heating system was designed to heat one building, e.g., private house or apartment building). This includes, e.g., gas, solid fuel and electrical boilers, hot-water floor heating, solar panels, etc. In addition, this option should be noted if the dwelling is heated primarily by heat pumps. Heat pumps may be used in ground source, air source and water-based heating systems.

Stove or fireplace heating – to be noted if the dwelling is heated primarily by stove(s), incl. iron stoves, kitchen stoves or fireplaces with a heating masonry wall, etc.

Electrical heating (e.g. electric or oil heaters, electrical floor heating) – to be noted if the dwelling is heated by electrical floor heating (no water pipes installed under the floor) or by stationary or mobile electrical heaters (e.g., mountable electrical convectors (radiators), mobile oil radiators, heat blowers, halogen radiators and other heat sources connected directly to power supply network). N.B. Do not note this option if the dwelling is heated by a local central heating boiler, which is running on electricity. This is local central heating.

Heating options are not available – to be noted if the dwelling cannot be heated. This is an exceptional situation, which could occur, for instance, in dwellings that are not designed for all-year-round habitation but were used as a place of usual residence by someone at the moment of census.

Command of foreign languages

A person is deemed to speak the language in question if his or her proficiency enables to manage familiar situations of language use in speaking, writing and reading. If the person is able to express himself or herself in familiar communication situations, understands clear talk on everyday subjects, understands the general meaning of uncomplicated texts and is capable of writing short texts for general use (brief messages, filling out standard documents), then the language proficiency is sufficient to give an affirmative answer to the question. If the person lacks some of the listed proficiencies but exceeds the levels described above in others, the answer should still be affirmative. For example, a person can be considered to speak the language if he or she

  • speaks the language quite fluently but is not able to write in it. This includes, for instance, Russian children in Estonian nursery schools who speak Estonian but are unable to write or read the language;
  • is able to read specialty or hobby literature in a foreign language but is not able to speak the language.

Command of local language form, dialect or subdialect

The question concerns persons of at least 3 years of age whose mother tongue is Estonian.

Local language form or dialect means local language customs, which are different from the Estonian literary standard, not foreign languages. Such language customs can be referred to as local language, dialect or subdialect. A person is deemed to speak a local language form or dialect if he or she is able to understand it and to express his or her thoughts in this language form.

Country of citizenship

Note the country of the person’s citizenship. If the person holds several citizenships, note only one, based on the following selection criteria:

  1. if one of the citizenships is Estonian citizenship, always note the Estonian citizenship;
  2. if the person does not hold Estonian citizenship, but is a citizen of another European Union (EU) country, note the EU citizenship;
  3. in other cases, note the citizenship that is considered more important by the respondent.

Undefined citizenship (with an Estonian alien’s passport) – to be noted if the person has been issued an Estonian alien's passport (‘grey passport’).

In case of children, note the citizenship that was acquired by birth. Consider that a child is an Estonian citizen if at least one of the parents was Estonian citizen at the moment of the child's birth (or at the moment of the father's death if the father died before birth). If a parent acquired Estonian citizenship through naturalisation after the child's birth, the child could not have acquired Estonian citizenship through that parent. If a child is an Estonian resident but has not acquired Estonian or foreign citizenship by birth, note the answer “Undefined citizenship” (even though the child does not have a passport). If a child has acquired two citizenships by birth, note only one, based on the selection criteria above (first preference given to Estonian citizenship, second preference to an EU country citizenship).

Dwelling

Dwelling can be a private house, a box of a terraced or semi-detached house or an apartment, if it is suitable for all-year-round habitation. Dwelling is also any other type of housing (e.g., dormitory room; summer cottage, which is not suitable for all-year-round habitation, etc.), which is the place of usual residence of at least one person at the moment of census.

Education acquired in general education school (upper secondary school, basic school, etc)

Question concerns persons of at least 15 years of age. The highest level of general education completed at the moment of census in a general education school (upper secondary school, basic school, etc.) should be noted. It is insignificant in which form of studies the education was acquired (full-time studies, evening classes, correspondence courses or as an extern) or whether the studies were temporarily interrupted or continued later. General education acquired in vocational schools must not be considered. Sometimes, studies in a general education school are continued after vocational school. Such general education must be taken into account in the answers.
The general education level should be noted for everyone (including persons with higher education). Only completed educational institutions (or grades) must be considered.

Secondary education – the person has graduated from an upper secondary school, a general education college or an evening school of 10, 11 or 12 grades, or has acquired secondary education in a special school for children with disability or in a closed special school. This does not include persons who acquired secondary education together with vocation or who acquired secondary specialized education on the basis of basic education. As an exception, this option may be noted for persons who acquired only general education (without vocation) in vocational educational school.

Basic education (incl. incomplete secondary education) – the person has not acquired secondary education in a general education school, but he/she has finished

  • basic school or at least 9 grades in a general education school in 1990 or later;
  • at least 8 grades in a general education school in 1962–1989;
  • incomplete upper secondary school or 7 grades until 1961;
  • a secondary science school or progymnasium until 1940;
  • a vocational secondary school in 1920–1940, or has acquired basic education in a special school.

If the respondent does not know, what level of education the other person acquired in a general education school, but does know that the person has acquired vocational education on the basis of basic education, note that the person acquired basic education in general education school.

Primary education – the person has not acquired basic education but he/she has finished (at least) one of the following types of school:

  • 6 grades in 1990 or later;
  • 3 grades in 1972–1989;
  • 4 grades in 1945–1971;
  • 6 grades in 1930–1944, including evening primary schools for adults;
  • 4 or 6 grades until 1930;
  • one-grade commune school, town primary school, one- or two-grade ministry school, parish school or higher primary school until 1920.

Primary education not acquired – the person has not attended school or has attended but has not completed a level corresponding to primary education.

Literate – the person is able to read (understand the text) and write (incl. writing in Braille) simple texts regarding his/her everyday life at least in one language. This is noted only about persons without primary education.

Illiterate – the person is unable to read (understand the text) and write simple texts regarding his/her everyday life in any language.

Ethnicity

Ethnicity is determined by the respondent. The person has the right to declare himself or herself a member of the ethnicity group, to which he or she feels the strongest ethnical and cultural affiliation. Note only one ethnicity. If a person feels affiliation to several ethnicities, he or she should specify the one that is more important for him or her.

The ethnicity of children is decided by the parents. In households where father and mother belong to different ethnicities and have difficulties deciding the ethnicity of children, the ethnicity of the mother should be preferred.

Household

Household is a group of people usually living in a common dwelling, who share available household facilities (common budget and food); a person living alone is also a household. A household is similar to a family but, unlike a family, it could also have only one member or include non-relatives.

Persons who belong to a household are household members.

Household plot

The household is regarded as grower of agricultural and horticultural products or keeper of farm animals, domestic fowls or bees mainly for own consumption in case the area of land used for growing agricultural crops or horticultural products or keeping farm animals is less than one hectare (10 000 m²) and the household has at least one of the listed options:

  1. 50 m2 of land for growing vegetables or
  2. three fruit trees or
  3. six berry bushes or
  4. ten rabbits or
  5. one other farm animal (pig, bovine animal, sheep, goat) or
  6. ten domestic fowls or
  7. three beehives.

Domestic fowls are laying hens, table chickens and other poultry (incl. ducks, geese, turkeys, quails, ostriches).

‘Mainly for own consumption’ refers to growing of agricultural and horticultural products or keeping of farm animals in cases where more than half of the products are used by the household itself, i.e., the primary purpose is not to earn income from the sale of products.

N.B. If the land area used for growing agricultural or horticultural products or keeping animals is larger than one hectare (10 000 m2), the answer should be “No”, because such land plots are subject to agricultural census.

This question refers to growing agricultural and horticultural products in 2011. The question on keeping farm animals, domestic fowls or bees refers to the state as of 31 December 2011.

Only consider land in direct possession of the household (owned, rented or used without charge), which is used by the household for growing agricultural or horticultural products and keeping farm animals (grazing, forage collection). Any lanes, lawn, decorative gardens, buildings and yard areas around private houses are not included in agricultural land. Any land that has been leased out or is not in use (fallow, uncut or not used for grazing) does not count.

If the household uses several pieces of land in different locations, they should all be taken into account in the answer.

If the land is used by several households, it should be clarified whether the agricultural land and farm animals belong to one household or are shared between the households. If they are shared, each household should answer this question only with regard to its own share (i.e., their own vegetable garden, fruit trees, berry bushes, farm animals and domestic fowls). However, if the land and/or animals have not been divided between households, the answer “Yes” should be given by the household that owns the land and/or animals, while the other household (e.g., that comes to help during the summer) should answer “No”.

Labour status

Questions about employment concern persons of at least 15 years of age.

Employed person – person, who performed at least one hour of remunerated work or was engaged in enterprise or was temporarily absent from his/her place of employment or enterprise during the week 19-25 December 2011.

Work means, in addition to paid employment, also business operations, farming, freelance work, individual work, as well as work without direct compensation at a farm or business of a family member, etc. Unpaid housework and caring for children is a household is not considered as work in this context.

It is irrelevant for the purposes of the census, whether the work was official or whether it was full-time or part-time.

The definition of work also includes production of agricultural produce and any illegal activities that generated income. Unpaid housework and caring for children is a household is not considered as work.

Persons engaged in enterprise are deemed to have worked in this week (19-25 December 2011) if one of the following conditions has been met:

  1. the person works in his or her company or farm or is engaged in private praxis for the purpose of earning income, even if no actual income was earned;
  2. the person spends time on ensuring the functioning of a company, farm or private praxis, even if nothing was actually sold, no services were provided and nothing was produced (e.g., a farmer who is engaged in maintenance work, an architect who was waiting for customers, a fisher who repaired a boat or nets, a person who attended a workshop, etc.);
  3. the person spends time on starting a company, farm or private praxis (e.g., purchased or set up equipment, rented premises, ordered equipment, etc.).

Person who works at own farm (agricultural holding) has worked in the week in question (19-25 December 2011) if at least a part of the produce is sold. It is irrelevant whether the produce was sold in the week in question, only that normally (a part of) the produce gets sold.

A salaried employee, who attended a training course during the entire week (19-25 December 2011), is deemed to have worked if one of the following conditions has been met:

  1. he or she attended the training with the consent of the employer;
  2. the training took place during working time;
  3. the training was directly linked with the current job.

Temporary absence from work applies to persons whose performance of work was temporarily interrupted and who assume that they will continue to be employed by the same employer or company. In such cases, generally, at least one of the following conditions should be met:

  • temporary absence does not exceed three months;
  • the person continues to receive at least 50 % of the salary.

N.B. Persons on pregnancy and maternity leave should also be noted as temporarily absent from work (their answer to the question should be "Yes"). Persons on parental leave are not considered to be temporarily absent from work, irrespective of the amount of income (e.g., parental benefit).

Salaried employees are considered to be temporarily absent if they preserve their relation with the employer. In principle, only persons in a permanent employment relationship can be temporarily absent. Persons doing occasional work cannot be included in the group of temporarily absentees, because they do not have a permanent employment relationship. Similarly, seasonal workers are not considered to be temporarily absent during off-seasons if they do not have an employment relationship for the entire year. New employees, who have concluded an agreement for employment but who have not actually commenced working, are not considered to be temporarily absent (they are considered to be seeking work). However, persons who fell ill on the first day of the agreed employment should be considered as temporarily absent.

Entrepreneurs (employers, self-employed persons and farmers) and unsalaried persons in family enterprises should be noted as temporarily absent if the business persists in their absence. The business is considered to persist if at least one of the following conditions has been met:

  1. the machinery or equipment, in which the person has invested money, continue to be used in the company by the person or by salaried employees;
  2. the office, warehouse, farm or another commercial building remains in use;
  3. information on the company is available in a phone book, business directory, advertising paper, etc.

Employees of beach restaurants, kiosks and other seasonal enterprises can be considered to be temporarily absent during off-seasons due to temporary closing for business only if they have an agreement for return to work and the employer continues to pay them remuneration, which constitutes at least 50 % of their regular wages.

Unemployed person – person, who was unemployed; had been actively seeking work during December 2011 and in the case of finding work he/she was ready to start working within two weeks.

Active seeking for work includes any measures taken to find work or start a business:

  • contacting relatives/acquaintances;
  • monitoring job listings;
  • registration with the Unemployment Insurance Fund or another employment mediation agency;
  • making preparations to start a business, a farm or a similar undertaking.

Waiting periods before the start of agreed employment are also considered as seeking for work.

The year of being employed for the last time should be the year when the person last worked. If the respondent does not remember the exact year, note an approximate year.

Conscript – to be noted for persons who fulfil the duty to serve in the Defence Forces by serving in the Defence Forces or by alternative service. Persons who have entered voluntary contractual active service and officers should not be noted as conscripts (they are salaried employees).

Student (pupil) – to be noted if the person is acquiring general, vocational or specialized education at a general education school, a vocational educational institution or an institution of higher education. Persons who study in defence educational institutions in the framework of compulsory military service (courses for junior non-commissioned officers or reserve officers) should be noted as conscripts. Persons who attend work-related in-service or retraining courses (they are usually temporarily absent from work) or attend training courses for unemployed, or hobby courses (informal education) should not be noted as students (pupils). Persons on academic leave should be noted according to the activity, in which they are engaged during the academic leave (such as "Conscript", etc.). If a student has also a job during the studies, he or she should be enumerated as employed.

Person receiving pension for incapacity for work – to be noted for persons who have been granted pension for incapacity for work.

Other pensioner – to be noted for persons who have been granted old-age pension, survivor's pension, national pension or any other pension (except pension for incapacity for work).

On parental leave. The employment contract or service relationship is suspended for the period of parental leave. Parental leave is granted to the mother or the father until the child reaches three years of age. Parental leave may also be granted to a guardian, if the leave is not used by the mother or the father. This group does not include persons on pregnancy or maternity leave (they should be noted as temporarily absent from work). N.B. A person, who did not work before the child was born, cannot be on pregnancy, maternity or parental leave. In such cases, "Homemaker" should be noted as the answer, provided that they do not belong to any other group (such as student).

Homemaker – to be noted if the person is not seeking work or is not able to commence work within two weeks and were, for the most part of the week before the census (19-25 December 2011), engaged in unpaid housework and/or took care of children or other family members (e.g., housewives). This group also includes persons who did not work before the child was born (consequently, they cannot be on pregnancy, maternity or parental leave). The group does not include pensioners, students (pupils), babysitters or housekeepers who work for remuneration (incl. food, accommodation, etc.) (the latter should be categorised as employed).

Unemployed for other reasons – to be noted for persons who do not work for any other reason, including:

  • persons who have given up the search for work (for instance, there are no suitable work opportunities for them and they no longer hope to find work (‘discouraged’ persons));
  • persons who do not see any reason to work (e.g., volunteers) or who live off their assets (rentiers);
  • persons who were not seeking work during the week in question (19-25 December 2011) and were not able to commence work within two weeks, because they were attending in-service training courses;
  • persons who are not working due to a disability or long-term illness, except those who receive a pension for incapacity for work (the latter should be included in the category of persons receiving pension for incapacity for work);
  • persons who were, during the week in question (19-25 December 2011), held in a police or custodial institution (incl. police detention facilities, detention chambers, prisons or preliminary investigation facilities) or a reception facility for refugees.

Legal marital status

The question concerns persons of at least 15 years of age. This question refers to the person’s legal (official) marital status, which may differ from his or her actual (de facto) marital status.

Never been legally married – to be noted for a person who has never been legally married.

Legally married – to be noted for a person whose marriage is legal and has not terminated due to death of the spouse or divorce. A person can also be legally married if he or she does not live with his or her spouse. Only a marriage between a man and a woman is considered legal in this context. According to the Estonian Family Law Act, marriage is contracted between a man and a woman and a marriage has legal effect only if the marriage is registered at a vital statistics office or by a priest (since 01.12.2001) upon contraction of the marriage.

Divorced – to be noted for a person whose previous legal marriage terminated due to registration of divorce and who has not entered into a new legal marriage.

Widowed – to be noted for a person whose (previous) legal marriage terminated due to death of the spouse and who has not entered into a new legal marriage.

Level of higher education

Doctor (incl. former Candidate of Science), medical doctor who has completed residency – qualification acquired in the educational system of the USSR, certified by a diploma of Candidate of Science (Kandidat nauk) degree or Doctoral (Doktor nauk) degree, is considered as equivalent with a Doctoral level degree. These levels of education could not be received by graduating from a folk university, a university of Marxism and Leninism, etc.

Master (incl. integrated studies of 5 to 6 years, engineering studies, medical doctor who has completed internship, one-year teacher training) – this level also includes persons who have completed internship or one-year teacher training after Bachelor’s studies, as well as persons who have completed integrated studies (completion of integrated studies is possible since 2002).

Higher education obtained on the basis of a curriculum that was used before 1992 – the person has a diploma of higher education – he or she has completed a pre-1992 curriculum of higher education at an institute, academy, university or another educational institution. If the person obtained higher education before 1992 in a foreign country, note the level of education obtained abroad, not “higher education obtained before 1992”. Such curricula can be still in use on the territory of the former USSR.

Bachelor (study period of at least 4 years, admission in Estonia until school year 2001/02) – the person has a Bachelor’s diploma (such graduation is possible from 1992) – he or she has completed a curriculum of higher education with a standard study period of at least 4 years at an institute, academy, university or another educational institution.

Bachelor (study period of 3 years, admission in Estonia from school year 2002/03) – the person has a Bachelor’s diploma – he or she has completed a curriculum of higher education with a standard study period of 3 years at an institute, academy, university or another educational institution.

Professional higher education, Diploma study (also higher vocational education) – the person has graduated from an institution of (professional) higher education, a vocational educational institution or another educational institution, having studied on the basis of a curriculum of higher vocational education (graduation is possible from 2000), professional higher education (graduation is possible from 2002) or Diploma study (graduation is possible from 1992).

By completing higher vocational education, a person does not obtain an academic degree but a diploma of higher education. Higher vocational education cannot be obtained after 2008.
By completing professional higher education or Diploma study, a person does not obtain an academic degree but a diploma of higher education.

Level of vocational, occupational or professional education

A person’s level of education is determined by the highest completed study programme in the formal education system (i.e., institutions of vocational or higher education). Incomplete education does not raise the level of education.

The level of vocational, occupational or professional education received in a foreign country must be determined in the same manner as the level of education acquired in Estonia.

Completed higher education – this includes persons who have graduated from an institution of higher education or have completed a higher education curriculum at another educational institution and have acquired the level of education corresponding to completed higher vocational education, professional higher education, Diploma studies, Bachelor’s studies or Master’s studies. This also includes persons who have received a Doctoral level or equivalent degree or have completed their residency. Such levels of education cannot be received from folk universities, universities of Marxism and Leninism or other similar institutions.

Completed vocational, occupational or professional education (which is not higher education) – this includes persons who, after completing a level of general education, have received a document certifying vocational training. This refers to acquisition of a vocation in a school of vocational education, a school of vocational secondary education, an institution of secondary specialized education, or a technical school. Any in-service training or retraining, training at workplace or hobby education (language courses, folk universities) or pre-vocational education should not be considered here.

No vocational, occupational or professional education – this includes persons who have not acquired vocational or specialized education. This answer should also be noted in case of persons who have completed upper secondary school (in general education) and have, in addition to the secondary education, also received a vocation (pre-vocational education) from the general education school. If a person has completed pre-vocational education for young people without basic education and has received basic education from a general education school and pre-vocational education from a vocational school, the person has acquired basic education in a general education school but does not have vocational education. Such levels of education can be received, for instance, from Põltsamaa Vocational School or Vana-Vigala Technical and Service School.

Location of main place of work

If the person works at several places, the place where he or she worked for the majority of time during the week in question (19-25 December 2011) should be noted. If the employer of the person has subordinate units in several places or if the address of the employer is different than the address of the place of employment of the person enumerated, note the location where the person himself or herself actually worked during the week in question. If the person was on a business trip during the week in question, note the location of his or her normal place of work in Estonia.

At home / own farm – to be noted if the person worked in the same building or territory (farm, garden house, garage, etc.) that is the location of his or her place of usual residence.

Fixed address in Estonia, outside home or Fixed address in a foreign country – one of these options should be noted if the person worked at a fixed address outside home.

This groups include persons who worked in several places during the week before the census (19-25 December 2011) or were engaged in mobile work, but started their work (received their work orders) always from the same place. This includes bus drivers working on domestic long-distance lines, aircraft pilots, flight attendants, etc. The location of the employer should be noted as the location of the place of work for these persons. This group also includes janitors, guards, etc., who work on a limited territory but not in one building.

No fixed address in Estonia or No fixed address in a foreign country – one of these options should be noted if the place of work had no fixed address. This includes persons whose workday did not always start from the same place (e.g., long-distance truck drivers, long-distance seafarers and other ship crewmembers, builders who worked on different sites).

Long-term illness or health problem

‘Long-term’ means that illness or health problem has lasted or is likely to last for at least six months. This also includes health problems, from which a person has suffered for a long time, but which have not been diagnosed by a doctor. In addition, long-term health problems include recurrent health problems (e.g., seasonally exacerbating symptoms, such as allergies), as well as conditions, which are controlled or relieved by regular administration of medication or other treatments.

The question does not require specification of the exact nature of the long-term illness or health problem.

This question does not concern temporary or short-term illnesses or health problems occurring during the census. Conditions, such as mild myopia or pregnancy, should not be considered as health problems in this context, even if they last longer than six months.

Main source of subsistence

Main source of subsistence includes any monetary income or any other resources received (food, clothing, shelter, heating, etc.), which are necessary for the coping of the person.

The main source of subsistence is determined by the respondent. If the person considers two sources of subsistence equally important for coping and cannot decide, which source of subsistence is the main one (e.g., equal income from both sources), the source positioned higher on the list of options should be noted here.

Wage and salaries – remuneration for work, which is paid in money or in kind (food, heating, etc.) on the basis of an employment contract, a contract for services, the Public Service Act or an oral agreement with an employer; any compensations for work (incl. occasional work, unofficial work), including fees, payments for contractual services, bonuses, redundancy payments, payments for piece-work, gratuities, commissions or a percentage of turnover as agreed with the employer. Wage and salaries also includes stipends or other payments received for a specific job, research or project.

Income from entrepreneurship / farming / business activity – income from production, intermediation or business activities, in which the respondent is an active party. It is irrelevant whether it is an individual or a company or whether the company has been registered. This also includes self-employed persons. In addition, the category includes production of agricultural produce, timber, pelt, etc., for the purpose of sale.

Pension for incapacity for work – to be noted if pension for incapacity for work is the person’s main source of subsistence.

Other pension – old-age, national, survivor’s or any other pension, except for pension for incapacity for work. Survivor's pension should be only noted as the source of subsistence of the person who is the beneficiary of the pension.

Maintained by household members or other persons – to be noted for persons, such as children, who are maintained by household members or other persons (parents or relatives living elsewhere, etc.). This answer should also be noted if a significant portion of the subsistence of the person comes from support payments (alimony). If a child is living with a grandparent, for instance, note this source of subsistence for the child, not the income (e.g., pension) of the grandparent.

Support, scholarship, benefit (e.g., parental or unemployment insurance benefit, unemployment allowance) – child benefits and family allowances, parental benefit, subsistence benefit, unemployment insurance benefit, unemployment allowance, other amounts paid through the Unemployment Insurance Fund, education allowance, stipends instituted by the Estonian government, local government, foreign country or an individual (except stipends or payments received for a specific job, research or project – this should be noted as wage and salaries (Option 1)), or any other types of support, such as those paid to freelance artists and writers (through the Cultural Endowment or another fund). This category also includes benefits in kind. Child benefits and family allowances should only be noted as the source of subsistence of the parent or guardian to whom the benefit or allowance has been granted.

Maintained by institution – to be noted, for example, in case of residents of social welfare institutions (children's homes, care homes, etc.), conscripts serving in the Defence Forces, imprisoned persons in custodial institutions, monks and nuns in monasteries, etc. This option must be noted in case of institutions that offer full maintenance financed by the state or a local government. If a person pays a part of maintenance costs (e.g., in a retirement home), the selection of an answer should be based on the fact whether the person or the institution covers the larger portion of the cost. If larger portion of maintenance costs is paid by the person, note the answer according to the person’s main source of subsistence. If larger portion of maintenance costs is paid by the institution or the respondent does not have this information, note that the person is maintained by institution.

Other source of subsistence – income not listed above. This includes, for example:

  • property income or income from capital (income from rent, dividends, interest) – income from the rental of property (immovable or movable property, such as a house, apartment or vehicle); interest on loans or deposits; dividends on shares, entrepreneurship, business or another field of activity in which the respondent is not an active party;
  • loans, deposits, savings, sales of property – study loans or any other loans for short-term use. This does not include loans taken to buy dwellings, buildings or similar objects. This option includes living off one’s savings and subsistence from the sale of shares, fund units, immovable or movable property, i.e., realisation of previously acquired assets;
  • personal auxiliary household – subsistence from the production of agricultural produce (vegetables, horticultural products, domestic animals, etc.) for own consumption only. This does not include production of agricultural or similar produce for the purpose of sale (i.e., income from entrepreneurship / farming / business activity);
  • lottery prizes, awards, insurance payments, compensations for damage, cultural or scientific awards;
  • begging and subsisting on waste (gathering and sale of waste and empty bottles, etc.).

Mother tongue

Mother tongue is the language, which was learned in early childhood as the first language and in which the person is generally most proficient. The mother tongue and the ethnicity of the person do not have to be the same.

The mother tongue of young children is decided by their parents. If parents have difficulties deciding the mother tongue of a child, note the language usually spoken in the household.

In case of deaf persons, sign language can also be noted as mother tongue. If a person has grown deaf at a later age, note the first language learned as a child.

Number of children given birth to

The question concerns women of at least 15 years of age. All live-born children before the moment of census (31 December 2011 at 00:00) are to be included. If a child lives separately from the mother or has died at a young age, include them as well. Adopted children and stepchildren are not taken into account here.

Number of rooms in the dwelling

This answer should indicate the total number of rooms in the dwelling (apartment, private house, etc.), irrespective of whether the household in question uses all rooms in the dwelling or not. For example, if a household lives in an apartment with three rooms and the third room is empty (or is used by another household), note that the dwelling has three rooms.

Rooms include living rooms, bedrooms, children's rooms, offices, dining rooms, etc. If there is no permanent wall between dining room and kitchen (or the wall has been dismantled), this room should be counted as a room, not as a kitchen. A room can also be located on basement or attic floor. Parlour kitchens and privatised rooms in dormitory-type buildings are also counted as rooms. If a room is suitable for all-year-round habitation and has an area of at least four square meters and height of at least two meters (for the most part), it should be counted among rooms.

The definition of a room does not include kitchens, vestibules, toilet rooms, bathrooms, pantries, saunas, cloakrooms or any other auxiliary premises, irrespective of size. Furthermore, rooms that are used exclusively for business or work-related purposes (for instance, used only as workshops, studios, customer service rooms) are not considered to be rooms of the dwelling. However, if such room is used for both, work-related purposes and housework or hobbies, for instance, this room should be included in the number of rooms of the dwelling.

If a household lives in an uncompleted residential building, enter the number of constructed rooms, not the planned number of rooms.

Occupation at the main place of work

If the person has (had) several occupations at the main place of work, the occupation in which the person is (was) normally engaged for the majority of time are to be noted.

If a person has another occupation in the same company in addition to the main occupation, which is remunerated separately (for instance, he or she also works as a cleaner in addition to the main occupation), the answer should only reflect the main occupation.

Owner of dwelling

If the dwelling has multiple owners, the option that is higher on the list of options will be noted.

Resident(s) of Estonia (place of usual residence is in Estonia) – to be noted if the owner’s place of usual residence is in Estonia. Here the citizenship of the owner is irrelevant.

Resident(s) of foreign country (place of usual residence abroad) – to be noted if the owner’s place of usual residence is not in the Republic of Estonia.

State of local government – to be noted if the owner is a state authority, state organisation or foundation, city, city district or rural municipality government.

Other (company, non-profit association, legal person governed by public law, etc.) – to be noted if the owner does not belong to aforementioned groups, e.g.:

  • company (factory, bank, insurance company, real estate company etc.; incl. companies in which the capital share of state or local government unit is less than 50%);
  • self-employed person
  • non-profit association (e.g., a church);
  • foundation;
  • Central Society of Estonian Consumers` Co-operatives (ETK);
  • agricultural association;
  • legal person governed by public law (public law university, national library, national opera, Estonian Academy of Sciences etc.).

Place of birth

Place of birth is a place (country, administrative unit) where the person’s mother was a (permanent) resident at the time of the person’s birth.
Note the name of the country based on current state borders.

If the person was born in Estonia, note the name of the county, rural municipality and settlement (city, town, small town, village) on the basis of the current administrative division. ‘Current administrative division’ refers to the administrative division at the end of 2010. If the person is unable to give the answer on the basis of the current administrative division, note the place of birth on the basis of the former administrative division and specify, based on the respondent’s knowledge, during which period that division was used. The (approximate) period when the administrative division was in effect is an auxiliary question, which is required for subsequent encoding of the place of birth within current borders.

If the person’s place of birth according to documents differs from the mother’s place of residence at the time of the person’s birth, note in the answer the place of birth according to documents.

If the person was born before 1945 in Pechory county or the former territory of the Republic of Estonia east of the Narva River, note the answer "Former territory of Estonia – Petserimaa (Pechory) or area to the east of the Narva River". However, if the person was born on this territory in or after 1945, note the answer “Russia”.

Place of birth of grandparents

Answers should be based on the current state border. As an exception, persons born before 1945 on the former territory of the Republic of Estonia (Pechory or the area east of the Narva River) are also considered to be born in Estonia.

All four grandparents were born in Estonia – note this answer if the respondent knows that all four grandparents were born in Estonia (or a former territory of the Republic of Estonia).

Some of the grandparents were born in Estonia – should be noted in two cases:

  1. the respondent knows that some (one to three) grandparents were born in Estonia (or a former territory of the Republic of Estonia) and the others outside Estonia;
  2. the respondent knows that some grandparents were born in Estonia (or a former territory of the Republic of Estonia) but does not know the place of birth of the others.

None of the grandparents were born in Estonia – should be noted in two cases:

  1. the respondent knows that all grandparents were born outside Estonia;
  2. the respondent knows that some grandparents (one to three) were borne outside Estonia but does not know the place of birth of the others.

Place of usual residence

Place of usual residence (habitual residence, permanent place of residence) is usually the place of residence, where a person spends most of his/her daily rest and sleep time. It may differ from registered place of residence.

A person’s place of usual residence is in Estonia if

  1. he/she has been living in Estonia continuously for at least 12 months before 31 December 2011, or
  2. he/she came to live in Estonia in 2011, before 31 December, and intends to stay here for at least one year.

N.B. A person's usual place of residence is also in Estonia in case he or she has been temporarily away from Estonia during 2011 due to work or vacation or for some other reason, but intends to return to live permanently in Estonia.

A person, who has been away (or intends to be) away from his or her place of usual residence for less than 12 months as of 31 December 2011, is considered to be temporarily absent.

If a person belongs to one of the groups below, consider the following explanations when specifying the place of usual residence.

  • Persons, who work away from home for more than 12 months but spend most of their days off with their households, are considered to be permanent residents at the address of their household. It is irrelevant in this context whether the place of work is located in Estonia or abroad. In case of shorter temporary absence, the person’s place of usual residence is always with the household, irrespective of the time spent at home.
  • Pupils of general education schools (upper secondary schools, basic schools, etc) and secondary vocational education institutions, who reside outside home during their studies are generally considered to be permanent residents at the address of their household. Exceptions:
    1. Students with their own (new) family (spouse/cohabitant and/or child). Their place of usual residence is at the address of the new family.
    2. Adult students who are, for the most part, economically independent (e.g., have a job and earn the majority of their own income) and do not intend to return to their (former) household after completion of studies. Their place of usual residence determined on the basis of the study location.
  • Students of institutions of higher education and post-secondary vocational education residing outside their former homes during their studies are generally considered to have a place of usual residence at the address at which they live during the studies, provided that they live there for the majority of the study period. If the student has his or her own family (spouse/cohabitant and/or child), his or her place of usual residence is the residence of his or her family.

    If an Estonian student studies abroad, he or she is considered to be a permanent resident in a foreign country if the study period abroad is at least 12 months. Such a student should not be enumerated in Estonia. In case of shorter study periods, the place of residence in Estonia is considered to be the place of usual residence of the student. If the student does not return to his or her last place of residence in Estonia after the studies abroad for some reason (e.g., it was a rental apartment), the residence of his or her parents should be considered to be the place of usual residence.

    If a foreign student studies in Estonia, he or she is considered to be a permanent resident in Estonia if the study period in Estonia is at least 12 months.
  • Households (incl. one-member households), who regularly live at several addresses during a year, are considered to have the place of usual residence at the address where they spend the majority of the year. This includes, for instance, households that have a home both in the city and in the countryside.
  • Children, who live alternately in two households (e.g., after the parents’ divorce), are considered to have the place of usual residence at the address where they spend the majority of time. If a child spends equal amounts of time in the households of both parents, the place of usual residence is the dwelling where the child was at the moment of census.
  • Persons residing in an institution (children's home, care home, custodial institution, etc.) are considered to be permanent residents of that institution if they have been living in the institution for at least 12 months before 31 December 2011 or have arrived there before 31 December 2011 and are likely to live there for at least 12 months. Institution means, in this context, institutions that operate 24 hours a day and provide maintenance – accommodation (shelter), food and, if necessary, care – to the residents of the institution.
    N.B. Pupils, who live in restricted specialised school dormitories and are maintained by the institution, are considered to be residing in the institution. Students (pupils), who live in boarding schools or other dormitories, are not considered to be residing in the institution.
  • Conscripts generally have their place of usual residence at the address where they lived before military service. However, if a conscript will not return to the former place of residence (e.g., it was a rental apartment), his place of service (barracks) should be noted as the place of usual residence.
  • Regular members of the Defence Forces have their place of usual residence at their private address, not at the address of their place of service. If a regular member of the Defence Forces does not have a private address, the place of service should be noted as his or her place of usual residence.
  • If a person does not have a place of usual residence, the place (dwelling, settlement) where he or she was at the moment of census (i.e., at 00:00 on 31 December 2011) should be noted as his or her place of usual residence. This includes, for example:
    1. persons who live in a shelter (incl. persons using accommodation services under a contract) and do not have any other place of residence (their place of residence is the shelter);
    2. persons who live temporarily with their relatives, friends or acquaintances, because they do not have a permanent residence (their place of residence is the dwelling of the acquaintances);
    3. persons who live in a mobile dwelling (e.g., caravan, mobile home) (in their case, note the street of the place of residence, if possible; in the case of a vessel, note the location of the home port);
    4. persons who sleep in random cellars, staircases, boiler rooms, abandoned buildings, night shelters, etc. (in those cases, the address of the place of residence should only indicate the settlement (city, town, small town, village), i.e., the centre of the particular enumeration area).
  • Military and navy staff, diplomatic staff and their family members
    1. The place of residence of the military and navy staff of the Republic of Estonia and their family members who live with them, who are in a foreign country at the moment of census, is their place of residence in Estonia. In exceptional cases, if said persons do not have a dwelling in Estonia at the moment of census (e.g., they have sold it), note only the name of the settlement (city, town, small town, village) in which the former dwelling was located.
    2. Foreign military and navy staff and diplomatic staff and their family members who live with them in the Republic of Estonia are not subject to enumeration, irrespective of the time they have lived in Estonia (they are foreign nationals).

Relationship between household members

Spouse – the person who is legally married to the reference person. Only a marriage between a man and a woman is considered legal in this context. According to the Estonian Family Law Act, marriage is contracted between a man and a woman and a marriage has legal effect only if the marriage is registered at a vital statistics office or by a priest (since 01.12.2001) upon contraction of the marriage.

Cohabitant – the person who is in conjugal relationship with the person in question, but is not legally married to that person (cohabitation partner). A parson of the same sex may also be a cohabitant.

Child (incl. adopted) – both biological and adopted children should be noted a children. If a child is not biological or adopted child, but the child of the spouse/cohabitant, note Option 4 (“Child of the spouse or cohabitant”).

Child of the spouse or cohabitant – the child is not a biological or adopted child of the reference person, but is the child of his or her spouse or cohabitant.

Mother/father (incl. adoptive parent) – the biological or adoptive parent of the child. A person who is a cohabitant of the mother or father of the child, but is not the biological (or adoptive) parent of the child, is not considered to be the parent of that child. For example, a man who is the cohabitant of the mother of the child, but is not the biological parent of the child and has not adopted the child, is not the father of the child.

Spouse or cohabitant of mother/father – to be noted if the person in question is not the parent of the child.

Grandparent (incl. spouse/cohabitant of a grandparent). N.B. Great-grandparents should not be noted here.

Grandchild (incl. grandchild of the spouse/cohabitant). N.B. Grand-grandchildren, i.e., fourth generation, should not be noted here.

Other relative (incl. spouse's / cohabitant's relative) – to be noted if persons are related through any type of blood relationship or relationship by marriage other than those listed above. The relatives of a spouse are relatives by marriage to the other spouse and to the relatives of that spouse. The relationship by marriage does not end after termination of the respective marriage.

Relatives include, for instance:

  • mother and father in law (parents of the spouse or cohabitant);
  • daughter and son in law (spouse or cohabitant of the child);
  • aunts and uncles;
  • spouses or cohabitants of brothers and sisters;
  • relatives of the spouse or cohabitant of the child;
  • grand-grandparents and grand-grandchildren, etc.

Not related should be noted if the persons in question are not related through any kind of blood relationship or relationship by marriage.

Religion

Person is regarded to have a religious affiliation if he/she feels an affiliation to a religion (denomination). The person does not have to be a member of a church or congregation. In addition, it is irrelevant whether the person has been baptised, whether he or she goes to church regularly or is a member of any other non-Christian association.

Restrictions the health problems place on person’s activities of everyday life for longer period

This question should be answered by everyone, irrespective of the answer to the previous question. The question concerns general coping of the person. The respondent should select the answer that seems suitable at a first glance. There is no need to think specifically about any particular daily activities.

The question is intended to measure long-term restrictions due to health, not financial, cultural or other reasons that are unrelated to health. Time specification ‘at least for six months’ refers to the duration of the restriction, not the duration of the underlying health problem.

‘Activities of everyday life’ refers to working, studying, housekeeping, personal grooming, communicating with other people, recreational activities, etc. In case of restrictions on activity, assess whether the person would be able to perform respective activities independently. This means that cases, where a person does not wash his or her windows or does not perform other housekeeping work due to, for instance, living arrangements (not poor health), should be excluded.

Restrictions on activities must have lasted for at least the past six months. If a health-related restriction on activity occurred less than six months ago, the answer should be based on an assessment whether the restriction is likely to last for at least six months. This means that any temporary restrictions, such as an arm cast, should be excluded; however, restrictions caused by a need to use a wheelchair due to losing a leg two months ago should be included.

Restrictions on activities are significant if the person requires daily assistance, and less significant if the person requires assistance for some activities, but not on a daily basis.

If answers are provided for another person, then it should be considered that everyday activities are restricted if the person cannot perform household tasks independently and requires assistance of another person for coping (option “Significant restrictions”). If the person is able to cope by using support devices and does not require assistance of another person, then everyday activities should be considered to be restricted, but not significantly so.

Children should be assessed according to their age; for example, an infant’s inability to get dressed is not a restriction on activity due to long-term health problems.

Status at main place of work

If the person has several statuses at the main place of work, the status with higher income should be noted.
If it is difficult to ascertain, whether a shareholder is an entrepreneur or a salaried employee, the decision should be based on whether he or she earns income mainly as wages and salaries or as proprietary income. A similar criterion should be applied to members of various associations (income in this case is also wages and salaries or property income). The same rules should be followed to note the employment status of a person, who did not work during the week in question (19-25 December 2011), in his or her last main place of work.

Employee with a stable contract (incl. public service), whose employment relationship lasts for at least one year – to be noted for a person who is employed in full-time or part-time work for the benefit of an institution, company or another employer and who receives remuneration in money or in kind. This group includes salaried employees whose employment relationship with the employer has lasted or is likely to last for one year or longer. It is irrelevant whether the place of work has been officially registered or not. Salaried employees include officers and non-commissioned officers. Pastors are salaried employees as well.
Public service means working at a national or local government agency on the basis of the Public Service Act or in other selected positions.

Employee with a stable contract, whose employment relationship lasts for less than one year – to be noted for a person who is employed in full-time or part-time work for the benefit of an institution, company or another employer and who receives remuneration in money or in kind. The contractual employment relationship of such an employee lasts less than one year. It is irrelevant whether the place of work has been officially registered or not. This answer should also be noted for persons who earn income with occasional work.

Entrepreneur-employer is an owner of an enterprise, workshop, shop, office or a similar establishment with at least one stable salaried employee. A person does not become an entrepreneur-employer if he or she only uses salaried employees occasionally (seasonally). A salaried director of a company is not considered to be an entrepreneur-employer.

Farmer with salaried employees is a person who runs a farm with at least one stable salaried employee (it is irrelevant, whether the farm has been officially registered or not). Family members and relatives who work without receiving any direct salary are not salaried employees.

Self-employed person, or an entrepreneur without employees, is a person who is engaged in selling the product of his or her work (service or product) and who possesses the necessary means of production (it is irrelevant whether the work of such self-employed person has been officially registered or not).

Farmer without employees is a person who runs a farm without any permanent salaried employees (it is irrelevant, whether the farm has been officially registered or not).

Freelancers are persons who are not employed by anyone and are active in a field of art (e.g., artists, writers, etc.), without having a separate enterprise (rooms, land, equipment, etc.). They are similar to self-employed persons. Salaried employees who earn income from occasional work are not freelancers.

Unpaid worker in a family enterprise or farm is a person who works in an enterprise or farm of his or her family without receiving a salary as such (he or she receives a share of the income, including income in kind, generated by the enterprise or farm). This category does not include voluntary work or activities. Unpaid worker in a family enterprise or farm has to live in the same household as the owner of the enterprise or farm.

Member of commercial association is a member in an association, which has the objective, according to the articles of association, to earn material income and to distribute it between members. The business name of a commercial association should include the word "ühistu" (association). A person who works for the commercial association and receives remuneration for this work is not a member of commercial association. He or she is a salaried employee.

Time of construction

Time of construction of the house refers to the period when the house was officially approved (commissioned for use). If construction of the house has been completed but a permit for use has not yet been issued, note the time when it was first occupied. If the house has been reconstructed, extended, etc., you should still note the year of initial commissioning of the house (except if the house has been completely destroyed and has been restored later).

Uncompleted building – to be noted if some rooms of the house are already used as a place of usual residence while active construction still continues (residential building is under construction). For instance, if construction continues in one end of a semi-detached house, while residents have moved into the other end, the answer “Uncompleted building” should be given.

Type of dwelling

(1) Apartment in an apartment building

(2) Apartment in non-residential building

Apartment building is a building where at least half of the total area is used for apartments. An apartment building usually has at least two apartments, which can normally be accessed through a shared corridor or stairway. In exceptional cases, an apartment building can also have only two apartments (e.g., two apartments of a formerly four-apartment building are now used as shops). Most apartment buildings have several floors. The definition of apartment buildings also includes former dormitories where the rooms have been privatised (it is irrelevant whether the privatised rooms are used on the basis of rental contracts or by the owners). Most municipal apartments (incl. social housing apartments) are located in apartment buildings.

Non-residential building is a building where less than half of the usable area is used for habitation. This category includes, for instance, office buildings, shops, schools and other buildings with at least one dwelling (e.g., guard's apartment). An example of a non-residential building would be a five-storied building with apartments on the two uppermost floors and shops and offices on the lower floors.

Apartment is a room or a collection of rooms constructed or converted to be suitable for all-year-round habitation by one household. An apartment must have a separate entrance from outside or from a shared corridor; i.e., one should not have to pass through another dwelling in order to enter an apartment.
The definition of apartments also includes parlour kitchens and privatised rooms in former dormitories (the latter may used by the residents who are owners or have rental contracts). The rooms in currently operating dormitories and hotel rooms are not categorised as apartments (these are accommodation establishments).
If two apartments, which were formerly side by side or one on top of the other, have been merged into one apartment, so that a person is not required to pass a shared corridor in the house or to go outside in order to go from one apartment to the other, these should be considered to be one apartment.

(3) Private house (one-family dwelling)

Private house is a residential building, which has been built for one family and has not been divided into apartments (i.e., it constitutes one dwelling). This also includes farmhouses and former summer cottages, which have been adapted or converted for all-year-round habitation. Several households may live in one private house.

(4) Apartment in a private house divided into several dwellings (e.g., in a house that was originally built as one-family dwelling) – to be noted if one house includes two dwellings (apartments) with separate entrances.

(5) Box of the semi-detached house – to be noted if the box of the semi-detached house is a separate dwelling, which can be accessed directly from outside. A semi-detached house consists of two connected private houses, built on one lot or on two neighbouring lots, where both have separate direct exits to outside and both have their own roofs.

(6) Box of the terraced house – to be noted if the box of the terraced house constitutes a separate dwelling, which can be accessed directly from outside. A terraced house comprises at least three connected private houses (or terraced house boxes) where every box has a separate exit that leads directly outside.

(7) Room (rooms) in a hostel or in an accommodation establishment – to be noted in case of …

  • room(s) in a boarding school or dormitory for students/employees. This does not include former dormitories where the rooms have been privatised – such dwelling should be listed under the group "Apartment in an apartment building".
  • room(s) in an accommodation establishment (hotel, motel, guesthouse, guest apartment, hostel, holiday village, holiday home, etc.). Generally, rooms in accommodation establishments are intended for a short-time stay. Rooms should be considered to be rooms in an accommodation establishment only if the establishment has been registered as such. For example, if a self-employed person is using a residential building or an apartment for the provision of bed-and-breakfast services and has registered this business with the local government as an accommodation establishment, the residential building or apartment is considered to be an accommodation establishment. Dwellings allocated by employers are considered to be room(s) in an accommodation establishment only if the rooms have been registered as such; otherwise, the dwellings generally belong to the category of apartments.
    If the person does not run an official accommodation business, but simply rents a part of the apartment or private house, it is not an accommodation establishment.

(8) Social welfare institution providing temporary accommodation (e.g. shelter, social housing unit) – to be noted in case of institutions providing temporary shelter for 24 hours a day. Unlike dwellings of the type “Establishment, institution (e.g. children's home, youth home, care home, custodial institution, monastery, etc.)”, such institutions do not provide communal meals. This includes, for instance, women’s shelters, shelters for mothers and children, homeless shelters, social housing units and rehabilitation centres for people without a home, if they are operating 24 hours a day. This does not include social apartments or shelters for the homeless, which do not provide 24-hour accommodation.

(9) Establishment, institution (e.g. children's home, youth home, care home, custodial institution, monastery, etc.) – to be noted in case of institutions that operate 24 hours a day and provide maintenance – accommodation (shelter), food and, if necessary, care (the immediate needs of the person are met through this institution) – to the residents of that institution. The affiliation and funding sources of the institution are irrelevant.

This includes substitute homes (e.g., children's homes SOS Children's Villages, youth homes), residential education institutions, adult care homes (incl. special care homes), mixed-care social welfare institutions, nursing and psychiatric hospitals, barracks, specialised school dormitories, custodial institutions, etc.

(10) Other room or a building (e.g. summer cottage not suitable for year-round living; trailer; boat; garage). This includes rooms, which have not been listed above and have not been designed for all-year-round habitation, but served as the place of usual residence for at least one person at the moment of census. This includes, for instance, summer cottages, which are not suitable for all-year-round habitation, offices, mobile homes (warming rooms), caravans, boats or other rooms adapted for temporary habitation and used by a person over a longer period of time.

(11) Roofless (homeless) - to be noted for persons who did not have a place of residence at the moment of census, i.e., the person slept in random cellars, staircases, boiler rooms, abandoned buildings, etc. This also includes persons who stay overnight in shelters for the homeless that do not provide 24-hour accommodation.

Type of Institution

Institution means in this context institutions that operate throughout the year 24 hours a day and provide maintenance – accommodation (shelter), food and, if necessary, care – to the residents of the institution. The affiliation and funding sources of the institution are irrelevant.

All persons living in an institution constitute an institutional household.

Children’s home, youth home, residential educational institution, care home – this includes child welfare institutions (child shelters and safety houses), mixed care social welfare institutions and general and special care institutions (incl. retirement homes).

Child welfare institutions are, for example, substitute homes or children’s homes, SOS Children’s Villages, homes for small children, substitute homes for children with special needs, youth homes, residential educational institutions, and substitute family homes. Mixed-care social welfare institutions are institutions that provide multiple welfare services, e.g., welfare institutions that serve both elderly people with coping problems and people with special needs (irrespective of age).

Educational institution – this category includes educational institutions that provide full maintenance for its pupils. An educational institution may be a person’s place of usual residence only if he or she can reside there all-year-round. This includes, for instance, special schools for children with behavioural problems (Tapa and Kaagvere special schools). Boarding schools are normally not included in this category.

Health care institution – this includes hospitals, clinics, (medical) care centres, rehabilitation centres and others inpatient care institutions.

Religious institution – e.g., a monastery.

Custodial institution – this includes prisons, preliminary investigation prisons, detention houses and cells, the expulsion centre of the Police and Border Guard Board in Harku.

Other – e.g., a training centre of the Defence Forces.

On 11 June, the phone line of respondents’ customer support is open until 12:00 pm. We apologise for the inconvenience.