Agriculture

Agriculture is one of the most traditional economic activities in Estonia. It has provided us with food for millennia. Agriculture continues to be important in Estonia, supplying with food not only Estonia, but also other countries, and providing jobs for many people.

Agricultural statistics give an overview of the situation of agriculture in Estonia by month, quarter and year. Statistics Estonia publishes the following agricultural indicators for Estonia as a whole and for counties:

  • crop farming (areas, production, fertilisation);
  • animal farming (livestock, production, buying-in prices);
  • milk use (production of milk products);
  • organic farming;
  • creation of value from agriculture (production value, costs and value added);
  • sale and rent prices of agricultural land;
  • consumption of agricultural products;
  • labour force and other gainful activities;
  • production methods;
  • sizes and types of agricultural holdings.

Agricultural statistics are used to assess the situation of the sector, monitor production and consumption trends as well as food security.

  • The data of economic accounts for agriculture serve as a basis for national accounts.
  • The statistics of agricultural land prices reflect how direct support paid to agricultural producers affects the price of land.
  • Agricultural production and buying-in prices are used in economic accounts for agriculture.
  • Consumption data reflect national demand and consumption trends.
  • Collecting data on quantities of agricultural production allows assessing the country’s food self-sufficiency.

A major share of agricultural statistics in the European Union are collected using a common methodology. The statistics are used to prepare analyses and development plans and to assess the effectiveness of the EU Common Agricultural Policy.

Agricultural statistics contribute important information for other areas as well. For example, in environmental policy, agricultural indicators are used in the compilation of national greenhouse gas inventories and in reporting under the EU Nitrates Directive and Water Framework Directive as well as under HELCOM Baltic Sea Action Plan.

Utilised agricultural area 986,206 ha
0.0%
2022
Organic crop area 226,605 ha
2.6%
2021
Cereal production 1,528,554 tonnes
18.9%
2022
Potato production 77,972 tonnes
9.6%
2022
Milk production 643,834 tonnes
2022
Meat production 86,487 tonnes
2022
Egg production 120,099 thousand pcs
2022
Average purchase price of milk 544.2 euro/tonne
2.3%
2022 DECEMBER
Value of agricultural output 1,630,697.5 thousand euros
44.4%
2022
Agricultural land and area under crops | 2020 – 2022
Unit: hectares
2020 2021 2022
Utilised agricultural area 985,456 986,672 986,206
Arable land 694,394 699,632 707,319
Cereals for the production of grain 370,120 367,117 361,823
Wheat 168,038 179,998 180,971
Common winter wheat 117,951 135,921 152,737
Common spring wheat 50,087 44,077 28,234
Rye 20,689 11,900 13,318
Barley 130,726 121,522 116,390
Winter barley 22,439 24,527 35,433
Spring barley 108,287 96,994 80,957
Oats 41,027 40,008 36,869
Spring cereal mixtures 401 334 286
Triticale 5,944 7,394 5,130
Buckwheat 3,293 5,961 8,859
Dry pulses 49,535 48,972 48,833
Field peas 35,641 33,096 37,255
Field beans 13,833 15,829 11,434
Other dry pulses 61 48 144
Potatoes 3,639 3,370 3,381
Fodder root crops 270 285 785
Industrial crops 79,792 85,313 95,655
Rape and turnip rape seeds 70,926 78,848 86,448
Winter rape and turnip rape seeds 57,312 66,934 77,680
Spring rape and turnip rape seeds 13,614 11,913 8,768
Linseed (oilfax) 73 198 116
Hemp 5,161 4,338 6,826
Aromatic, medicinal and culinary plants 2,863 1,236 1,049
Other industrial crops 769 694 1,216
Plants harvested green from arabe land 175,024 178,225 179,588
Green maize 13,596 13,019 16,191
Cereals and dried pulses harvested green 5,281 8,266 11,089
Other plants harvested green from arable land 730 2,079 3,297

Crop production per inhabitant | 2018 – 2022
Unit: kg
2018 2019 2020 2021 2022
Cereals 697 1,226 1,229 967 1,148
Potatoes 67 91 71 54 59
Vegetables 48 67 44 39 33

News

Agricultural production in Estonia increased again last year

According to the preliminary data of Statistics Estonia, 847,800 tonnes of milk and 79,900 tonnes of meat were produced in 2020. This is, respectively, 3% and 5% more than the year before. The utilised agricultural area without kitchen gardens increased by 3,000 hectares and totalled 983,000 hectares.
Read more 27. January 2021