Agriculture

Agriculture is one of the most traditional economic activities in Estonia. It has provided us with food for millennia. Agriculture continues to be important in Estonia, supplying with food not only Estonia, but also other countries, and providing jobs for many people.

Agricultural statistics give an overview of the situation of agriculture in Estonia by month, quarter and year. Statistics Estonia publishes the following agricultural indicators for Estonia as a whole and for counties:

  • crop farming (areas, production, fertilisation);
  • animal farming (livestock, production, buying-in prices);
  • milk use (production of milk products);
  • organic farming;
  • creation of value from agriculture (production value, costs and value added);
  • sale and rent prices of agricultural land;
  • consumption of agricultural products;
  • labour force and other gainful activities;
  • production methods;
  • sizes and types of agricultural holdings.

Agricultural statistics are used to assess the situation of the sector, monitor production and consumption trends as well as food security.

  • The data of economic accounts for agriculture serve as a basis for national accounts.
  • The statistics of agricultural land prices reflect how direct support paid to agricultural producers affects the price of land.
  • Agricultural production and buying-in prices are used in economic accounts for agriculture.
  • Consumption data reflect national demand and consumption trends.
  • Collecting data on quantities of agricultural production allows assessing the country’s food self-sufficiency.

A major share of agricultural statistics in the European Union are collected using a common methodology. The statistics are used to prepare analyses and development plans and to assess the effectiveness of the EU Common Agricultural Policy.

Agricultural statistics contribute important information for other areas as well. For example, in environmental policy, agricultural indicators are used in the compilation of national greenhouse gas inventories and in reporting under the EU Nitrates Directive and Water Framework Directive as well as under HELCOM Baltic Sea Action Plan.

Utilised agricultural area 986,672 ha
0.1%
2021
Organic crop area 226,605 ha
2.6%
2021
Cereal production 1,285,749 tonnes
-21.3%
2021
Potato production 71,170 tonnes
-24.6%
2021
Milk production 214,556 tonnes
2022
Meat production 28,363 tonnes
2022
Egg production 40,304 thousand pcs
2022
Average purchase price of milk 426.4 euro/tonne
3.5%
APRIL 2022
Value of agricultural output 1,088,131.0 thousand euros
9.3%
2021
Agricultural land and area under crops | 2019 – 2021
Unit: hectares
2019 2020 2021
Utilised agricultural area 988,410 985,456 986,672
Arable land 689,589 694,394 699,632
Cereals for the production of grain 364,364 370,120 367,117
Wheat 166,984 168,038 179,998
Common winter wheat 115,377 117,951 135,921
Common spring wheat 51,607 50,087 44,077
Rye 28,901 20,689 11,900
Barley 123,378 130,726 121,522
Winter barley 17,161 22,439 24,527
Spring barley 106,217 108,287 96,994
Oats 37,258 41,027 40,008
Spring cereal mixtures 305 401 334
Triticale 5,886 5,944 7,394
Buckwheat 1,652 3,293 5,961
Dry pulses 42,954 49,535 48,972
Field peas 31,835 35,641 33,096
Field beans 11,058 13,833 15,829
Other dry pulses 61 61 48
Potatoes 5,336 3,639 3,370
Fodder root crops 446 270 285
Industrial crops 79,096 79,792 85,313
Rape and turnip rape seeds 72,411 70,926 78,848
Winter rape and turnip rape seeds 51,436 57,312 66,934
Spring rape and turnip rape seeds 20,974 13,614 11,913
Linseed (oilfax) 52 73 198
Hemp 4,455 5,161 4,338
Aromatic, medicinal and culinary plants 1,639 2,863 1,236
Other industrial crops 539 769 694
Plants harvested green from arabe land 180,220 175,024 178,225
Green maize 13,713 13,596 13,019
Cereals and dried pulses harvested green 8,567 5,281 8,266
Other plants harvested green from arable land 2,247 730 2,079

Crop production per inhabitant | 2017 – 2021
Unit: kg
2017 2018 2019 2020 2021
Cereals 996 697 1,226 1,229 967
Potatoes 69 67 91 71 54
Vegetables 45 48 67 44 39

News

Agricultural production in Estonia increased again last year

According to the preliminary data of Statistics Estonia, 847,800 tonnes of milk and 79,900 tonnes of meat were produced in 2020. This is, respectively, 3% and 5% more than the year before. The utilised agricultural area without kitchen gardens increased by 3,000 hectares and totalled 983,000 hectares.
Read more 27. January 2021