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Agriculture

Agriculture is one of the most traditional economic activities in Estonia. It has provided us with food for millennia. Agriculture continues to be important in Estonia, supplying with food not only Estonia, but also other countries, and providing jobs for many people.

Agricultural statistics give an overview of the situation of agriculture in Estonia by month, quarter and year. Statistics Estonia publishes the following agricultural indicators for Estonia as a whole and for counties:

  • crop farming (areas, production, fertilisation);
  • animal farming (livestock, production, buying-in prices);
  • milk use (production of milk products);
  • organic farming;
  • creation of value from agriculture (production value, costs and value added);
  • sale and rent prices of agricultural land;
  • consumption of agricultural products;
  • labour force and other gainful activities;
  • production methods;
  • sizes and types of agricultural holdings.

Agricultural statistics are used to assess the situation of the sector, monitor production and consumption trends as well as food security.

  • The data of economic accounts for agriculture serve as a basis for national accounts.
  • The statistics of agricultural land prices reflect how direct support paid to agricultural producers affects the price of land.
  • Agricultural production and buying-in prices are used in economic accounts for agriculture.
  • Consumption data reflect national demand and consumption trends.
  • Collecting data on quantities of agricultural production allows assessing the country’s food self-sufficiency.

A major share of agricultural statistics in the European Union are collected using a common methodology. The statistics are used to prepare analyses and development plans and to assess the effectiveness of the EU Common Agricultural Policy.

Agricultural statistics contribute important information for other areas as well. For example, in environmental policy, agricultural indicators are used in the compilation of national greenhouse gas inventories and in reporting under the EU Nitrates Directive and Water Framework Directive as well as under HELCOM Baltic Sea Action Plan.

Utilised agricultural area 986,050 ha
-0.1%
2022
Organic crop area 226,605 ha
2.6%
2021
Cereal production 1,522,004 tonnes
18.4%
2022
Potato production 66,294 tonnes
-6.9%
2022
Milk production 425,916 tonnes
2022
Meat production 56,990 tonnes
2022
Egg production 80,129 thousand pcs
2022
Average purchase price of milk 480.2 euro/tonne
2.7%
AUGUST 2022
Value of agricultural output 1,088,131.0 thousand euros
9.3%
2021
Agricultural land and area under crops | 1980 – 2022
Unit: hectares
1980 1981 1982 1983 1984 1985 1986 1987 1988 1989 1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017 2018 2019 2020 2021 2022
Utilised agricultural area .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. 792,409 882,322 898,532 914,729 906,458 931,776 948,826 945,992 955,916 965,907 974,820 993,595 1,003,505 981,825 984,671 988,410 985,456 986,672 986,050
Arable land .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. 519,348 591,821 559,105 599,349 597,791 596,413 645,067 632,399 620,483 632,100 648,120 669,665 690,208 678,788 682,805 689,589 694,394 699,632 707,149
Cereals for the production of grain 444,300 425,900 425,300 418,300 410,200 403,900 408,000 389,200 391,100 395,700 397,000 418,100 423,100 375,100 319,500 304,300 288,800 326,600 354,100 321,000 329,300 274,100 259,200 263,200 260,979 282,094 280,260 292,253 309,282 316,412 275,295 296,949 290,473 311,032 332,949 350,376 351,353 330,677 350,433 364,364 370,120 367,117 361,734
Wheat 55,900 47,800 38,900 48,100 44,800 35,700 27,800 20,700 12,100 16,100 26,000 24,200 43,500 50,300 34,200 38,600 45,900 50,900 66,800 66,100 68,900 59,600 64,500 67,200 78,393 85,473 90,842 99,457 107,597 113,618 119,389 128,417 124,307 124,149 154,355 169,702 164,544 169,753 154,579 166,984 168,038 179,998 180,896
Common winter wheat 43,100 36,800 25,300 34,000 29,300 23,800 18,700 14,000 9,600 13,800 21,200 17,200 26,800 32,700 15,400 13,400 17,200 17,800 19,400 13,100 21,700 25,500 27,800 25,500 23,172 19,636 23,567 36,871 42,852 44,983 50,622 52,771 63,542 44,856 80,962 97,808 90,719 102,449 75,032 115,377 117,951 135,921 152,685
Common spring wheat 12,800 11,000 13,600 14,100 15,500 11,900 9,100 6,700 2,500 2,300 4,800 7,000 16,700 17,600 18,800 25,200 28,700 33,100 47,400 53,000 47,200 34,100 36,700 41,700 55,221 65,837 67,275 62,586 64,745 68,635 68,767 75,646 60,765 79,293 73,393 71,894 73,825 67,304 79,547 51,607 50,087 44,077 28,211
Rye 60,700 61,200 35,900 63,100 60,500 52,100 52,200 51,200 49,500 64,900 65,900 58,500 59,200 61,900 21,700 32,000 31,600 34,300 38,800 24,200 28,900 20,900 17,900 15,200 8,107 7,422 7,282 16,840 21,359 15,292 12,613 13,315 16,896 11,490 15,432 14,319 12,368 13,314 10,854 28,901 20,689 11,900 13,298
Barley .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. 131,400 127,236 144,165 142,057 136,106 136,525 140,676 104,818 118,309 108,997 133,050 125,826 131,414 135,342 102,487 138,485 123,378 130,726 121,522 116,334
Winter barley .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. 100 210 455 505 943 822 1,422 957 311 288 84 186 1,104 1,748 4,193 7,734 17,161 22,439 24,527 35,427
Spring barley 268,800 254,000 271,800 238,800 239,800 256,600 273,000 276,200 291,000 284,600 263,700 284,800 268,200 218,100 217,900 186,500 148,000 165,700 166,800 153,900 165,100 134,300 129,900 131,300 127,026 143,710 141,552 135,163 135,703 139,254 103,861 117,998 108,709 132,966 125,640 130,310 133,594 98,294 130,752 106,217 108,287 96,994 80,907
Oats 46,700 50,000 62,500 46,400 45,100 38,500 33,900 26,700 26,000 21,700 33,400 42,300 41,700 35,700 36,100 38,500 49,000 54,400 61,000 61,000 53,300 48,100 35,200 36,500 35,356 33,724 32,596 31,484 34,248 36,134 30,431 28,393 31,742 34,768 27,251 24,396 29,309 33,649 39,653 37,258 41,027 40,008 36,937
Spring cereal mixtures 12,200 12,900 16,200 21,900 20,000 21,000 21,100 14,400 12,500 8,400 8,000 8,300 10,500 9,100 9,600 8,700 14,200 21,300 20,600 15,700 12,600 6,300 6,300 5,600 5,109 4,469 4,856 3,692 3,329 2,581 3,754 3,767 2,394 3,709 3,022 2,110 1,026 367 611 305 401 334 286
Triticale .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. 4,200 5,300 7,200 6,547 6,165 2,501 4,369 5,866 7,963 4,020 4,457 5,599 3,252 6,223 7,089 5,680 5,829 3,342 5,886 5,944 7,394 5,130
Buckwheat 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 100 0 100 100 500 700 100 100 231 676 126 305 358 148 270 291 538 614 840 1,346 3,085 5,278 2,909 1,652 3,293 5,961 8,853
Dry pulses 400 3,300 800 1,500 1,400 1,000 800 400 500 200 100 100 400 400 700 3,700 5,800 8,700 6,400 2,900 3,900 3,700 2,400 4,400 4,345 4,440 4,625 5,705 4,790 4,913 7,326 8,550 10,955 13,579 19,088 31,263 55,423 65,562 46,805 42,954 49,535 48,972 48,904
Field peas .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. 100 100 200 300 500 3,500 5,300 6,000 5,500 2,100 3,200 3,200 2,200 4,000 4,236 4,282 4,542 5,608 4,709 4,830 6,860 8,457 10,874 13,249 16,521 22,126 38,866 38,750 29,677 31,835 35,641 33,096 37,333
Field beans .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. 200 300 85 49 78 84 77 80 355 93 51 227 .. 9,121 16,525 26,758 17,079 11,058 13,833 15,829 11,426
Other dry pulses .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. 0 100 24 109 5 13 4 3 111 0 30 103 .. 16 32 54 49 61 61 48 145
Potatoes 72,300 69,800 63,500 63,900 63,800 60,900 60,700 58,100 55,700 52,100 45,500 52,200 46,300 42,600 39,900 36,900 35,300 35,200 32,600 31,100 30,900 22,100 16,000 17,000 16,102 13,959 11,510 11,151 8,748 9,103 9,359 9,235 7,623 6,638 6,350 5,821 5,643 5,388 5,205 5,336 3,639 3,370 3,353
Fodder root crops 5,900 5,700 6,100 6,500 6,200 6,200 7,700 9,600 9,500 14,100 11,100 12,300 11,800 11,400 12,000 10,800 8,800 6,900 4,700 3,500 2,500 1,400 400 300 217 159 80 182 34 36 63 33 13 17 11 31 262 70 209 446 270 285 784
Industrial crops 5,600 5,100 4,500 5,200 5,100 4,700 4,700 4,600 6,800 4,400 3,200 3,000 4,700 2,100 3,600 7,300 9,500 9,000 17,800 24,600 29,100 28,300 33,200 46,700 50,552 47,110 62,894 74,718 78,504 83,425 99,335 89,957 87,929 87,244 80,962 72,595 75,261 85,539 79,150 79,096 79,792 85,313 95,645
Rape and turnip rape seeds 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2,200 700 600 1,100 2,900 1,200 2,500 6,000 8,600 7,900 17,500 24,200 28,800 27,500 32,900 46,300 50,365 46,646 62,492 73,588 77,687 82,053 98,188 88,997 87,161 86,124 79,993 70,839 70,103 73,786 72,683 72,411 70,926 78,848 86,456
Winter rape and turnip rape seeds .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. 2,008 1,174 848 3,599 7,266 5,708 12,342 11,103 21,434 24,297 35,303 38,829 25,418 34,806 28,120 51,436 57,312 66,934 77,673
Spring rape and turnip rape seeds .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. 48,357 45,472 61,644 69,989 70,421 76,345 85,846 77,894 65,727 61,827 44,690 32,010 44,685 38,980 44,563 20,974 13,614 11,913 8,783
Linseed (oilfax) .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. 100 100 100 100 130 163 207 136 200 236 173 115 80 77 43 121 117 80 53 52 73 198 116
Hemp .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. 9,845 3,536 4,455 5,161 4,338 6,815
Aromatic, medicinal and culinary plants .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. 289 139 364 126 230 447 263 392 646 521 838 1,055 1,402 2,569 1,639 2,863 1,236 1,049
Other industrial crops .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. 57 12 56 630 491 906 527 582 296 397 405 797 3,986 426 309 539 769 694 1,209
Plants harvested green from arabe land .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. 157,717 206,893 172,965 187,674 168,854 146,062 204,588 175,165 167,786 166,536 162,531 147,318 178,261 170,759 180,702 180,220 175,024 178,225 183,710
Green maize .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. 1,115 1,095 1,026 906 1,832 1,773 1,657 2,147 3,640 5,006 7,392 8,494 7,958 9,179 10,548 13,713 13,596 13,019 16,190
Cereals and dried pulses harvested green .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. 9,626 8,567 5,281 8,266 11,071
Other plants harvested green from arable land .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. 2,260 2,247 730 2,079 3,303

Crop production per inhabitant | 2017 – 2021
Unit: kg
2017 2018 2019 2020 2021
Cereals 996 697 1,226 1,229 967
Potatoes 69 67 91 71 54
Vegetables 45 48 67 44 39

News

Agricultural production in Estonia increased again last year

According to the preliminary data of Statistics Estonia, 847,800 tonnes of milk and 79,900 tonnes of meat were produced in 2020. This is, respectively, 3% and 5% more than the year before. The utilised agricultural area without kitchen gardens increased by 3,000 hectares and totalled 983,000 hectares.
Read more 27. January 2021