11. Sustainable Cities and Communities
The focus of the global goal “Sustainable Cities and Communities” is problems related to rapid urbanisation. Although cities are sources of innovation and exhibit fast growth in the number of jobs as well as economic growth, urbanisation also causes problems, such as poor living conditions, air pollution, poor access to services and lacking infrastructure.
The 2030 Agenda includes a global target to ensure everybody adequate, safe, affordable housing and basic services, and improve slums. Efficient waste management and availability of transport networks, especially of public transport, is considered important. Urban dwellers must be ensured access to green areas and other public spaces.
The Estonian sustainable development strategy emphasises the need to develop urban spaces into diverse, attractive and human-friendly environments.
The global goal “Make cities and human settlements inclusive, safe, resilient and sustainable” is linked in Estonia with the following indicators of urban environment (structures, air quality, green areas, etc.):
- Architectural monuments in good and satisfactory condition
- Casualties of traffic accidents
- Emissions of fine particulate matter
- Green areas in cities
- Satisfaction with the living environment
- People commuting by public transport, bicycle or on foot