A country’s greatest wealth is the people who live there. Knowing who make up the country's population tells us also about its past, present and future. Population includes all people living in the country, including foreign nationals and stateless persons. Population indicators show the breakdown of people living in Estonia by sex, age, nationality and educational level as well as where they come from. In Estonia, it is necessary to make sure that future generations will continue to sustain local life.

The main population indicators are the following:

  • population figure as at the beginning of the year;
  • natural increase and net migration;
  • various rates, e.g.
    • fertility rates;
    • death rates;
    • life expectancy;
    • demographic labour pressure index;
    • dependency ratio.

The following data on Estonian residents are included in population statistics:

  • sex;
  • age;
  • area;
  • nationality;
  • education;
  • citizenship;
  • country of birth;
  • native origin;
  • population projection.

Population statistics help to observe changes in the society and allow the state to make smart decisions. Time series analyses can be used to make projections, such as what will the Estonian population be like in 2050 or 2080. Will the population figure increase or decrease? Will Estonia be a country with an ageing population?

1 328 976
Natural increase -1 302
Net migration 5 458
Life expectancy for males 74.4
Life expectancy for females 82.8
Births 14 099
Deaths 15 401
Population distribution by ethnic nationalities | 2020

We live longer but not healthier

According to Statistics Estonia, in 2019, life expectancy at birth was 74.4 years for males and 82.8 years for females. Life expectancy has increased for both sexes, slightly more for males. Men are expected to live disability-free for 54.1 and women for 57.6 years.
Read more 27. August 2020

Immigration helped to increase the population figure

According to the revised data of Statistics Estonia, 1,328,976 persons lived in Estonia on 1 January 2020, which is 4,156 persons more than at the same time a year earlier. In 2019, the population figure decreased by 1,302 persons due to negative natural change, but increased by 5,458 persons as a result of positive net migration.
Read more 12. May 2020