Population

A country’s greatest wealth is the people who live there. Knowing who make up the country's population tells us also about its past, present and future. Population includes all people living in the country, including foreign nationals and stateless persons. Population indicators show the breakdown of people living in Estonia by sex, age, nationality and educational level as well as where they come from. In Estonia, it is necessary to make sure that future generations will continue to sustain local life.

The main population indicators are the following:

  • population figure as at the beginning of the year;
  • natural increase and net migration;
  • various rates, e.g.
    • fertility rates;
    • death rates;
    • life expectancy;
    • demographic labour pressure index;
    • dependency ratio.

The following data on Estonian residents are included in population statistics:

  • sex;
  • age;
  • area;
  • nationality;
  • education;
  • citizenship;
  • country of birth;
  • native origin;
  • population projection.

Population statistics help to observe changes in the society and allow the state to make smart decisions. Time series analyses can be used to make projections, such as what will the Estonian population be like in 2050 or 2080. Will the population figure increase or decrease? Will Estonia be a country with an ageing population?

1,331,796
0.1%
2022
Natural increase -5,315
-104.3%
2021
Net migration 7,043
86.2%
2021
Life expectancy for males 74.4
-0.1%
2020
Life expectancy for females 82.8
0.0%
2020
Births 13,272
0.5%
2021
Deaths 18,587
17.6%
2021
Population density 30.6 inhabitants per km²
0.0%
2022
Population distribution by ethnic nationalities | 2021
Population figure as at 1 January | 2002 – 2022
Males and females
2002 1,383,510
2003 1,375,190
2004 1,366,250
2005 1,358,850
2006 1,350,700
2007 1,342,920
2008 1,338,440
2009 1,335,740
2010 1,333,290
2011 1,329,660
2012 1,325,217
2013 1,320,174
2014 1,315,819
2015 1,313,271
2016 1,315,944
2017 1,315,635
2018 1,319,133
2019 1,324,820
2020 1,328,889
2021 1,330,068
2022 1,331,796

News

Immigration offset the high number of deaths; the population increased

According to Statistics Estonia, on 1 January 2022, the population of Estonia was 1,331,796, which is 1,728 persons more than at the same time a year ago. In 2021, there were 13,272 births and 18,587 deaths in Estonia. Based on migration data, 19,524 persons immigrated to Estonia and 12,481 persons emigrated from Estonia.
Read more 12. May 2022
News

The population of Estonia decreased, mainly due to the high number of deaths

According to the preliminary data of Statistics Estonia, on 1 January 2022, the population of Estonia was 1,328,439, which is 1,629 persons less than at the same time a year ago. In 2021, there were 13,138 births and 18,445 deaths in Estonia. Based on the data on registered migration, 12,280 persons immigrated to Estonia and 8,602 persons emigrated from Estonia.
Read more 18. January 2022
News

Statistics Estonia is conducting the most extensive relationship survey in Estonia

Today, Statistics Estonia is launching the largest and most comprehensive relationship survey in Estonia so far, titled “Safe relationships within family, at work and outside work”. The purpose of the survey is to get an overview of well-being and safety in relationships. An invitation to participate in the survey is sent by post to over 16,000 people.
Read more 4. October 2021