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Biodiversity protection and land use

Biodiversity (biological diversity) is a common good, which needs to be carefully preserved. The protection and sustainable use of ecosystems and species contribute to reducing environmental pressure and natural disasters. Healthy and coherent ecosystems also mitigate the effects of global warming. 

One of the global sustainable development goals is to reduce the degradation of natural habitats and halt the loss of biodiversity.

Statistics Estonia publishes the following information on biodiversity, its protection and land use:

  • ecosystem extent and ecosystem services
  • nature protection and relevant expenditures;

The statistics can be used to plan nature conservation and biodiversity development, develop a support system and implement landscape and habitat diversity conservation measures.

Ecosystem accounting provides information on the extent of ecosystems, their land owners and services provided. The accounting system is divided into two main sections: the ecosystem extent account and the supply and use tables for ecosystem services in monetary units.

The ecosystem extent account shows the area of Estonian ecosystems by main ecosystem classes and at a more detailed level. The extent account also shows the distribution of ecosystems by land owner type and economic activity.  See the tables and the prototype of on-line visualizations.

The supply and use tables for ecosystem services show the flows of a number of important ecosystem services that enter the economy, broken down by ecosystems that provide the services and service users.

More detailed information on the applied methodology is provided in the methodological reports of 2020 and 2021. The ecosystem accounts development was carried out in 2019–2021 and was co-financed by Eurostat. The record of the methodological seminar, held in June 2021, is available here.

The statistics of compiled ecosystem accounts are experimental and both the list of services and the methods for evaluating services are still being refined and therefore can change in the course of time. The output of experimental statistics may diverge from the traditional requirements of official statistics such as harmonisation, coverage, comparability (geographical and over time) and tried and tested methodology.

 

Supply of ecosystem services (market price, costs-based and revealed preferences based methods) | 2019

Unit: thousand euros
  Total supply Forest Grassland Cropland Wetland Artificial area Coast Inland waterbodies Other
Total 758 048 549 726 45 371 70 298 61 407 18 397 997 11 612 240
Provisioning services - total 456 846 362 003 13 618 45 293 35 911 .. 9 .. 12
Fodder 23 568 .. 12 302 11 266 .. .. .. .. ..
Agricultural production (crops) 32 272 .. .. 32 272 .. .. .. .. ..
Herbaceous biomass used for producing energy (bioenergy) 134 .. 46 88 .. .. .. .. ..
Wild berries, mushrooms 18 578 18 021 5 .. 552 .. .. .. ..
Wild game 8 712 5 263 1 265 1 667 496 .. 9 .. 12
Timber 33 8602 33 8602 .. .. .. .. .. .. ..
Peat 34 863 .. .. .. 34 863 .. .. .. ..
Forest seed 116 116 .. .. .. .. .. .. ..
Regulating services - total 120 536 97 769 12 060 2 815 767 7 100 1 .. 24
Global climate regulation: carbon sequestration 78 340 78 340 .. .. .. .. .. .. ..
Air quality regulation 11 068 6 325 1 351 2 193 668 522 .. .. 10
Pollination 31 128 13 104 10 709 621 99 6 578 1 .. 14
Cultural services - total 180 666 89 954 19 693 22 190 24 729 11 297 986 11 612 204
Recreation 135 455 65 315 13 478 13 832 21 787 8 963 899 11 033 149
Recreational hunting 35 038 20 363 5 098 7 489 2 011 .. 33 .. 45
Nature education 10 172 4 277 1 116 869 931 2 334 55 580 10

".." – No available or relevant data
Source data in the statistical database: KK091

 

Supply of ecosystem services (stated preferences based methods) | 2019

Unit: thousand euros

  Total supply Forest Grassland Cropland Wetland Artificial area Coast Inland waterbodies Other
Total 45 564 22 049 14 061 .. 9 455 .. .. .. ..
Provisioning services - total 6 513 3 147 1 551 .. 1 815 .. .. .. ..
Medicinal herbs 4 172 1 700 1 551 .. 921 .. .. .. ..
Wild berries and mushrooms 2 341 1 447 .. .. 894 .. .. .. ..
Regulating services - total 32 134 16 177 10 039 .. 5 917 .. .. .. ..
Global climate regulation: carbon sequestration and storage 12 868 6 151 4 014 .. 2 703 .. .. .. ..
Air quality regulation 4 902 3 271 .. .. 1 631 .. .. .. ..
Pollination 3 316 1 777 1 539 .. .. .. .. .. ..
Maintenance of soil fertility 4 076 2 200 1 876 .. .. .. .. .. ..
Habitat conservation 6 972 2 778 2 611 .. 1 584 .. .. .. ..
Cultural services - total 6 917 2 724 2 471 .. 1722 .. .. .. ..
Recreation 3 342 1 302 1 200 .. 841 .. .. .. ..
Nature education 3576 1423 1272 .. 881 .. .. .. ..

".." – No available or relevant data
Source data in the statistical database: KK093

Share of protected areas in Estonian terrestrial territory 19.4 %
2020
Share of habitat types of European Union interest in at least favourable status 57.0 %
2020
Share of protected forests in total forest land 14.2 %
2020
Ecosystem extent by ownership category and ecosystem type
Land surface area by land use in climate reports | 2013 – 2019
Unit: thousand hectares
2013 2014 2015 2016 2017 2018 2019
Forest land 2,450 2,451 2,451 2,451 2,451 2,450 2,450
Cropland 981 981 982 983 984 985 986
Grassland 289 286 283 281 279 277 276
Unmanaged wetlands 403 403 403 403 403 403 402
Peatland (Wetlands) 21 21 21 21 21 21 21
Settlements 350 352 353 355 356 357 357
Other land 40 40 40 40 41 41 41
Total 4,534 4,534 4,534 4,534 4,534 4,534 4,534

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