Material and energy efficiency
Society has an impact on the environment by extracting resources and energy and generating waste and pollution. It is important to use natural resources sustainably and preserve the environment in order to maintain ecological balance and ensure economic growth.
The preparation of environmental accounts based on the principles of economic statistics allows the integrated analysis of production, resource and energy use, emissions and environmental taxes. By combining data, it is possible to assess the impact of the economy on the environment and the contribution of the environment to the economy. The indicators resulting from these analyses are much more informative than indicators based on a single domain.
There is increasing public interest in environmental indicators. They are used to make decisions, implement new or ease existing measures, monitor development plans and domain-specific action plans, develop the circular economy, shape relevant policies, and monitor sustainability on the national level.
Recent decades have witnessed a significant technological development, with production becoming more energy and material resource efficient and versatile. Indicators compiled on the basis of material and energy balances can be used to characterize material and energy use and resource efficiency of the economy.
Statistics on material and energy efficiency provide an overview of the following:
- how skilfully and efficiently resources are used in Estonia;
- how much value added is created per one kilogramme of physical resources used;
- what the gross domestic product per unit of energy consumed is;
- how much material and energy has been consumed by the economy;
- how much domestic raw material is consumed per capita and per unit of area;
- what the physical trade balance is;
- which economic activities consume the most energy.
The data are needed to plan national development, develop a sustainable and competitive energy sector, monitor the circular economy action plan and, more broadly, the sustainability of the country.
|Direct material input per capita||34.39||37.52||37.34||39.08||38.63||37.33||37.41||43.14||46.32||42.42|
|Domestic material consumption per capita||25.00||26.92||27.00||28.77||28.29||27.06||26.90||30.99||32.66||29.26|
|Manufacture of wood and of products of wood and cork||5,704||5,630||3,059||3,229||3,391||4,059|
|Manufacture of paper and paper products||3,960||3,899||4,158||4,538||5,459||4,155|
|Manufacture of coke and refined petroleum products||12,944||24,943||29,850||23,149||30,606||14,067|
|Manufacture of other non-metallic mineral products||5,612||3,779||3,304||4,193||4,714||4,437|
|Electricity, steam and hot water supply||106,016||80,503||92,178||92,161||100,099||61,147|
|Real estate activities||3,441||5,068||4,003||2,672||4,326||5,483|
|Consumption by households||48,150||47,042||53,564||53,563||54,679||54,998|
|Heating/cooling activities by households||31,803||30,454||33,181||33,757||34,155||34,018|
|Transport activities by households||10,048||10,332||13,490||12,827||13,665||13,535|
|Other activities by households||6,299||6,256||6,893||6,980||6,858||7,445|