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Ukrainians in the Estonian labour market

Russia's aggression against Ukraine has forced millions of Ukrainians to flee their homes and homeland. Many of them have found a new home in Estonia. Ukrainian citizens and their family members who have come to Estonia because of the war can apply for temporary protection, which includes the right to work in the country. Commissioned by the Ministry of Social affairs, Statistics Estonia analyses the employment situation of Ukrainian refugees under temporary protection and the Ukrainian citizens staying in the country on other grounds (residence permit, short-term employment, etc.).

Data on individuals are taken from the population register and information on the existence of an employment relationship is obtained from the employment register. Data collection methodology is outlined at the bottom of the website.

The charts below show where the Ukrainian citizens who have been granted temporary protection and those staying in Estonia on other grounds are employed and in which fields of activity they work.

Overall breakdown: sex and existence of employment relationship

The chart shows the breakdown by sex and the existence of an employment relationship of the Ukrainian citizens aged 15–75 under temporary protection and those staying in Estonia on other grounds.

 

Economic activity

The chart shows the breakdown by the employer’s main economic activity of the employed beneficiaries of temporary protection and the Ukrainian citizens staying in Estonia on other grounds. For comparison, the indicator for the entire labour market is also given.

 

Age group

The chart shows the breakdown by age group and the existence of an employment relationship of the Ukrainian citizens under temporary protection and other citizens of Ukraine. Click on the legend to select the existence or lack of an employment relationship.

 

County

The map shows the number of employed Ukrainian citizens under temporary protection and those staying in Estonia on other grounds, by county of employment. In addition, the share of Ukrainian employees as a percentage of the total number of people working in the region is shown. The indicator can be selected on the legend.

 

Occupational group

The chart shows the breakdown by the major occupational group of the employed beneficiaries of temporary protection and other Ukrainian citizens (%). For comparison, the indicator for the entire labour market is also given.

 

See also other agencies' data on Ukrainian war refugees:

Estonian Police and Border Guard Board (in Estonian) – the number of Ukrainian war refugees in Estonia

Unemployment Insurance Fund – statistics on the beneficiaries of international protection related to Ukraine who have registered as unemployed

Education statistics portal Haridussilm (in Estonian) – Ukrainian war refugees in the Estonian education system

Estonian National Social Insurance Board – general data, reception and information points, short-term accommodation, client contacts and payments, telephone enquiries, residence registrations, school places

Methodology

Ukrainian citizens are divided into three groups based on the grounds for stay in Estonia.

  1. Ukrainian citizens and their family members (including citizens of other countries) who have come to Estonia because of the war are eligible to apply for temporary protection. Temporary protection is a one-year residence permit that grants war refugees similar rights to those enjoyed by Estonian residents, for instance, the right to study and work and therefore receive health insurance.
  2. Foreigners residing in Estonia on the basis of a residence permit are, in general, permitted to work in Estonia. The issue of residence permits to third-country nationals and persons with undetermined citizenship is regulated by the Aliens Act. A residence permit may be temporary or long-term.
  3. Short-term employees are foreigners who are legally staying in Estonia temporarily (for example, on the basis of a visa or visa waiver) and whose employment is registered with the Police and Border Guard Board before starting work. Short-term employment is permitted for up to 365 days within 455 consecutive days. Short-term employment is permitted for a longer period for employment as a teacher or a lecturer, for research work, for employment as a top specialist, and employment in a start-up company. Short-term employment as a seasonal worker is permitted for up to 270 within 365 consecutive days.

Data on persons granted temporary protection are collected from the population register. Data on residence permits are obtained from the register of residence permits and work permits, and information on short-term employment from the database of registration of short-term employment of foreigners in Estonia. Data on the existence of an employment relationship are collected from the employment register.

The employment relationships in force on the date shown in the charts are counted as employment. Data will be updated regularly in the future.

Although a person can be in more than one employment relationship, the main one has been determined for each person. The decision is based first on the type of employment (employment contract and similar types of contracts are preferred), then on the duration of the contract (preferably indefinite), workload (preferably higher), and the length of service (preferably longer).