Agriculture

Agriculture is one of the most traditional economic activities in Estonia. It has provided us with food for millennia. Agriculture continues to be important in Estonia, supplying with food not only Estonia, but also other countries, and providing jobs for many people.

Agricultural statistics give an overview of the situation of agriculture in Estonia by month, quarter and year. Statistics Estonia publishes the following agricultural indicators for Estonia as a whole and for counties:

  • crop farming (areas, production, fertilisation);
  • animal farming (livestock, production, buying-in prices);
  • milk use (production of milk products);
  • organic farming;
  • creation of value from agriculture (production value, costs and value added);
  • sale and rent prices of agricultural land;
  • consumption of agricultural products;
  • labour force and other gainful activities;
  • production methods;
  • sizes and types of agricultural holdings.

Agricultural statistics are used to assess the situation of the sector, monitor production and consumption trends as well as food security.

  • The data of economic accounts for agriculture serve as a basis for national accounts.
  • The statistics of agricultural land prices reflect how direct support paid to agricultural producers affects the price of land.
  • Agricultural production and buying-in prices are used in economic accounts for agriculture.
  • Consumption data reflect national demand and consumption trends.
  • Collecting data on quantities of agricultural production allows assessing the country’s food self-sufficiency.

A major share of agricultural statistics in the European Union are collected using a common methodology. The statistics are used to prepare analyses and development plans and to assess the effectiveness of the EU Common Agricultural Policy.

Agricultural statistics contribute important information for other areas as well. For example, in environmental policy, agricultural indicators are used in the compilation of national greenhouse gas inventories and in reporting under the EU Nitrates Directive and Water Framework Directive as well as under HELCOM Baltic Sea Action Plan.

Utilised agricultural area 987,785 ha
0.2%
Organic crop area 231,011 ha
1.9%
2022
Cereal production 1,200,666 tonnes
-21.5%
Potato production 84,860 tonnes
8.8%
Milk production 222,494 tonnes
7.0%
Q4 2023
Meat production 27,045 tonnes
1.0%
Q1 2024
Egg production 47,624 thousand pcs
-1.9%
Q1 2024
Average purchase price of milk 422.4 euro/tonne
-1.5%
APRIL 2024
Value of agricultural output 1,297,487.1 thousand euros
-20.4%
2023
Agricultural land and area under crops | 2021 – 2023
Unit: hectares
2021 2022 2023
Utilised agricultural area 986,672 986,206 987,785
Arable land 699,632 707,319 711,325
Cereals for the production of grain 367,117 361,823 352,148
Wheat 179,998 180,971 173,565
Common winter wheat 135,921 152,737 146,537
Common spring wheat 44,077 28,234 27,028
Rye 11,900 13,318 16,903
Barley 121,522 116,390 112,326
Winter barley 24,527 35,433 37,636
Spring barley 96,994 80,957 74,690
Oats 40,008 36,869 35,722
Spring cereal mixtures 334 286 185
Triticale 7,394 5,130 6,644
Buckwheat 5,961 8,859 6,803
Dry pulses 48,972 48,833 53,338
Field peas 33,096 37,255 42,717
Field beans 15,829 11,434 10,537
Other dry pulses 48 144 84
Potatoes 3,370 3,381 3,457
Fodder root crops 285 785 83
Industrial crops 85,313 95,655 82,849
Rape and turnip rape seeds 78,848 86,448 76,486
Winter rape and turnip rape seeds 66,934 77,680 70,201
Spring rape and turnip rape seeds 11,913 8,768 6,285
Linseed (oilfax) 198 116 77
Hemp 4,338 6,826 4,243
Aromatic, medicinal and culinary plants 1,236 1,049 823
Other industrial crops 694 1,216 1,220
Plants harvested green from arabe land 178,225 179,588 185,584
Green maize 13,019 16,191 19,189
Cereals and dried pulses harvested green 8,266 11,089 24,855
Other plants harvested green from arable land 2,079 3,297 3,487

Crop production per inhabitant | 2019 – 2023
Unit: kg
2019 2020 2021 2022 2023
Cereals 1,226 1,229 967 1,148 879
Potatoes 91 71 54 59 62
Vegetables 67 44 39 33 32

News

Organic farming area and number of organic livestock decreased last year

According to Statistics Estonia, in 2023, the organic farming area in Estonia was 225,300 hectares, representing 22.8% of total utilised agricultural area. 92% of the organic farming area was fully converted and the rest was under conversion. Compared with 2022, the organic farming area decreased by 2.5%, and 78 organic producers ceased activities.
Read more 21. May 2024