Water

Water is a natural resource without which there would be no life on earth. Clean groundwater is produced over a long period of time and therefore needs to be used sustainably. Human activity affects both the cleanliness and availability of fresh water. Water quality may, for example, be affected by chemical residues from sewage treatment plants and arable land. In the course of production and other activities, pollution of water bodies, surface water and groundwater must be avoided so that clean water remains available.

Water statistics show

  • how much water is consumed in Estonia;
  • how many consumers receive quality drinking water from public water supply;
  • what is the share and volume of treated waste water;
  • the level of organic pollution load of discharges into surface water bodies;
  • how many surface water bodies are in good condition.

Based on water statistics, national water protection programmes can be developed and implemented and legislation can be improved. The data are used to monitor the environmental strategy to ensure good status of surface and groundwater and to keep water bodies in good condition.

Water extraction (incl. mining water) 1,205.53 million m³
20.5%
2022
Water use 1,044.27 thousand m³
23.2%
2022
Share of wastewater with at least secondary treatment 105 million m³
15.4%
2022
Share of consumers receiving quality drinking water from public water supply 98.3 %
2022
Share of surface water bodies in at least good overall status 51 %
2022
Organic pollution load (BOD7) of wastewater discharged to surface water bodies 834 tonnes
-3.5%
2022
Groundwater extraction | 2022
Surface water extraction | 2022
Water extraction | 2014 – 2022
Unit: thousand cubic metres
2014 2015 2016 2017 2018 2019 2020 2021 2022
Water total 1,724,166 1,615,042 1,755,897 1,788,231 1,608,206 1,006,121 861,577 1,000,668 1,205,525
Ground water 45,520 44,094 44,326 44,839 46,620 44,912 44,976 46,074 45,922
Mining water 153,220 157,111 177,080 202,016 166,594 183,829 176,278 186,695 190,591
Surface water 1,520,932 1,410,050 1,530,449 1,537,535 1,391,623 775,287 635,295 761,809 964,774
Sea water 4,475 3,768 4,042 3,817 3,348 2,069 5,001 6,061 4,206
Mineral water 19 18 9 23 21 24 27 29 32

Water use | 2014 – 2022
Unit: thousand cubic metres
2014 2015 2016 2017 2018 2019 2020 2021 2022
Fields of water use total 1,561,065 1,486,685 1,602,495 1,579,370 1,435,717 833,136 704,279 847,631 1,044,273
Domestic sector 40,840 40,190 41,438 40,574 42,431 42,384 42,890 43,667 43,624
Industry 28,713 28,070 27,471 28,909 28,565 58,785 56,405 56,504 57,508
Energy supply 8,055 7,732 5,792 6,507 7,881 6,766 7,009 6,472 6,284
Cooling water 1,476,549 1,402,558 1,520,989 1,495,608 1,348,464 718,019 585,326 718,640 923,173
Agriculture 4,734 4,628 4,451 4,461 4,708 4,851 4,882 4,923 5,021
Irrigation water 426 389 371 459 488 332 307 337 329
Other water use 1,748 3,118 1,982 2,851 3,180 1,999 7,459 17,087 8,333

Pollution load to surface water bodies with discharged wastewater | 2014 – 2022
Unit: tons
2014 2015 2016 2017 2018 2019 2020 2021 2022
Biological Oxygen Demand (BOD7) 663 670 842 1,051 1,020 1,050 894 864 834
Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD-Cr) 7,667 7,749 8,791 9,444 10,646 10,956 9,725 8,501 9,044
Suspended solids 2,254 2,164 2,687 2,661 2,321 2,300 2,003 2,088 2,143
Total nitrogen 1,138 1,029 1,221 1,306 1,201 1,338 1,178 1,200 1,194
Total phosphorus 59 55 59 58 54 58 57 48 50

On 23 February, the phone line of Statistics Estonia’s customer support is open until 12:00 pm. Happy anniversary of the Republic of Estonia!