Social exclusion and poverty

A person might experience social exclusion if he or she lives at risk of poverty, or below the subsistence minimum, is severely materially deprived or lives in a household where the working-age members have very low work intensity. A low income might contribute to social exclusion: a person cannot afford dwelling essentials or durables, such as to pay rent or utilities, eat nutritious food, take a holiday away from home or buy a car, washing machine or phone.

To measure social exclusion and to identify the socioeconomic characteristics of people living in social exclusion, Statistics Estonia publishes data for the following indicators:

  • at-risk-of-poverty and absolute poverty rates;
  • deprivation;
  • participation in the labour market and work intensity of household;
  • households with payment difficulties.

All European Union member states use Laeken indicators to measure social exclusion. The indicators allow comparing the developments in Estonia with those in other countries.

3.5 %
150.0%
2022
22.5 %
-1.3%
2022
338.2 eurot
11.5%
2023
Deprivation rate 6.2 %
2023
Gini coefficient 0.32
2022
Persistent at-risk-of-poverty rate 15.3 %
2021
Long-term unemployment rate 1.7 %
2021
Very long-term unemployment rate 0.4 %
2019
Share of persons with bad or very bad health in the lowest income quintile 27.2 %
2023
News

Number of people living in absolute poverty rose by two and a half times

According to Statistics Estonia, 22.5% of Estonia’s population lived at risk of poverty and 3.5% in absolute poverty in 2022. Compared with 2021, the share of people living at risk of poverty decreased by 0.3 percentage points and the share of people living in absolute poverty increased by 2.1 percentage points.
Read more 10. November 2023

On 23 February, the phone line of Statistics Estonia’s customer support is open until 12:00 pm. Happy anniversary of the Republic of Estonia!