Statistical activity code: 10105
Use and supply of energy products by economic activities in a format harmonized with national accounts; energy use flows related to emissions; energy key indicators
Estonian Classification of Economic Activities (EMTAK 2008) based on NACE Rev. 2
Covers all institutional sectors, i.e. the whole economy
Physical energy flow accounts – consistent compilations of the physical energy flows into national economies, the flows circulating within the economy and the outputs to other economies or to the environment. Physical energy flow accounts have the same system boundaries as National Accounts (ESA) and are also based on the residence principle.
Physical energy flow accounts present data on the physical flows of energy expressed in terajoules in a way that is fully compatible with the National Accounts (ESA). Energy data are recorded in relation to the economic activities of resident units of national economies in a breakdown by economic activity. Data present the supply and use of natural energy inputs, energy products and energy residuals.
Economic activities – production, consumption and accumulation.
Resident unit of national economy – a resident unit of a country when it has a centre of economic interest in the economic territory of that country, i.e. when it engages for an extended period (1 year or more) in economic activities in that territory.
Residence principle in physical energy flow accounts –physical energy flows arising from the activities of all resident units are recorded, regardless of where these flows actually occur geographically.
Physical energy flow – the physical flows of energy from the environment to the economy, within the economy and from the economy back to the environment in terajoules (TJ). The physical energy flows are grouped into three generic categories: natural energy inputs, energy products and energy residuals.
Supply of energy flows – the supply of natural energy inputs, energy products and energy residuals by origin, i.e. supplier.
Origin of the physical energy flows – grouped into five categories: production, consumption, accumulation, rest of the world and environment.
Use of energy flows – the use of natural energy inputs, energy products and energy residuals by destination, i.e. user.
Destination of the physical flows – grouped into five categories: production, consumption, accumulation, rest of the world and environment.
Production – the production of goods and services. Production activities are classified according to NACE Rev. 2 and data is reported in A*64 aggregation level.
Consumption activities – in total and also divided into three sub-classes: transport, heating/cooling and other for private households’ final consumption.
Accumulation – the changes in stocks of energy products within the economy.
Rest of the world – the flows of imported and exported products.
Environment – the origin of natural input flows and the destination of residual flows.
Natural energy inputs (N00) – flows of energy that are moved from the natural environment as part of economic production activities or are directly used in production. Natural energy inputs are grouped into non-renewable natural energy inputs and renewable natural energy inputs.
Non-renewable natural energy inputs – these cover:
- fossil non-renewable natural energy inputs are flows of energy moved from fossil energy resources (oil resources, natural gas resources, coal and peat resources) located in the natural environment by economic production activities (N01);
- nuclear non-renewable natural energy inputs are flows of useable nuclear energy moved from mineral resources located in the natural environment by economic production activities (N02).
Renewable natural energy inputs – flows of energy from renewable sources moved from the natural environment by economic production activities. These cover:
- hydro-based renewable natural energy inputs, here hydro-kinetic energy (N03);
- wind-based renewable natural energy inputs, here kinetic energy from wind captured by economic production activities (N04);
- solar-based renewable natural energy inputs, here energy from solar radiation captured by economic production activities (N05);
- biomass-based renewable natural energy inputs, here biomass-based energy (N06);
- other renewable natural energy inputs than previously mentioned, such (e.g. geothermal, wave and tidal) (N07).
Energy products (P00) – flows of energy produced as an output of economic production activities (products as defined in ESA national accounts). Energy products are grouped according to the classification used in European energy statistics. Energy products cover:
- hard coal anthracite, coking coal, other bituminous coal (steam coal) (P08);
- brown coal and peat: sub-bituminous coal, lignite, peat, oil shale and oil sands (P09);
- derived gases (manufactured gases, excl. biogas): gas works gas, coke oven gas, blast furnace gas, other recovered gases (P10);
- secondary coal products: patent fuel, coke oven coke, gas coke, coal tar, BKB (brown coal briquettes), peat products (P11);
- crude oil, NGL and other hydrocarbons (excl. bio) (P12);
- natural gas (without bio) (P13);
- motor spirit (without bio): motor gasoline, aviation gasoline (P14);
- kerosene and jet fuels (without bio): gasoline type jet fuel, kerosene type jet fuel (without bio components), other kerosene (P15);
- naphtha (P16);
- transport diesel (without bio): road diesel (P17);
- heating and other gasoil (without bio) (P18);
- residual fuel oil: fuel oil – low sulphur content, fuel oil – high sulphur content (P19);
- refinery gas, ethane and LPG (P20);
- other petroleum products incl. additives/oxygenates and refinery feedstocks: additives/oxygenates, refinery feedstocks, white spirit and SBP, lubricants, bitumen, petroleum coke, paraffin waxes, other oil products (P21);
- nuclear fuel (P22);
- wood, wood waste and other solid biomass, charcoal, fuel wood, wood residues and by-products, black liquor, bagasse, animal waste, other vegetal materials and residues (P23);
- liquid biofuels: biogasoline, biodiesels, bio jet kerosene, other liquid biofuels (P24);
- biogas: landfill gas, sewage sludge gas, other biogases from anaerobic fermentation, biogases from thermal processes (P25);
- electricity (P26);
- heat: heat, geothermal energy, solar energy (P27).
Energy residuals (R00) – flows of energy content in non-products discarded, discharged or emitted by economic activities of production, consumption and accumulation. Energy residuals include waste (without monetary value); losses during extraction/abstraction, distribution/transport, transformation/conversion and storage; as well as balancing items to balance the supply and use tables. Energy residuals cover:
- renewable waste – for purposes of physical energy flow accounts only renewable municipal waste are covered (R28);
- non-renewable waste: for purposes of physical energy flow accounts non-renewable industrial waste and non-renewable municipal waste are covered (R29);
- energy losses all kinds of (during extraction, distribution, storage and transformation, and dissipative heat from end use) (R30);
- energy incorporated in products for non-energy use — flows of energy incorporated in products for non-energy use, such as lubricants and bitumen (R31).
Emission-relevant use of energy flows – the use of energy flows accompanied by air emissions by the using and emitting unit. Both fossil and biofuels are covered. Energy flows connected to fugitive emissions from storage and distribution of fuels are not included.
Key energy indicators – characterise production, consumption and accumulation of energy derived from physical flow accounts tables. Seven key indicators have been identified:
- total extraction of natural energy inputs – sum of natural energy inputs used in Estonian economy in terajoules (TJ);
- domestic production of energy products – total energy incorporated in energy products produced by Estonian economy in terajoules (TJ);
- total intermediate consumption of energy products – total energy of energy products used by economy in terajoules (TJ);
- total household consumption of energy products – total use of energy products by households in terajoules (TJ);
- total use of waste for energetic purposes – total energy obtained from incineration of waste with energy recovery;
- net domestic energy use – energy used during reporting year in economy and households for energetic purposes and energy accumulated during reporting year in non-energetic products;
- total energy input/output – total energy of all energy products produced by economy and residuals generated by economy and households in terajoules (TJ). Is identical to sum of energy of natural energy inputs, energy products and energy residuals used in economy and energy of energy products used by households.
Bridge indicators – various elements which make up the difference between the energy accounts and the energy balances. The “bridge” from the residence principle indicator to the territory-based indicator is presented for the entire national economy (no breakdown by industries) and is obtained as follows: total energy use by resident units − energy use by resident units abroad + energy use by non-residents on the territory + statistical differences = gross inland energy consumption (territory-based).
Bridge indicators are:
- domestic energy use – follows the residence principle and includes the eventual net use of energy by all resident units for energy and non-energy purposes;
- energy use of resident units outside their territory of residence – refers to purchases of energy products abroad. Both enterprises and households are covered;
- national fishing vessels operating abroad – energy use by resident fishing vessels operating outside national territory. All resident units’ energy use is included, i.e. those bunkered abroad and those bunkered in domestic ports;
- land transport operated by national residents abroad – purchases of energy products used for road transport made by residents (enterprises and households) abroad;
- water transport operated by national residents abroad – energy use by resident units undertaking international water transport. All resident units’ energy use for the purpose of international water transport is included, i.e. those bunkered abroad and those bunkered in domestic ports;
- air transport operated by national residents abroad – energy use by resident units undertaking international air transport;
- energy use of non-residents on the territory of Estonia – the purchase of energy products on the territory by non-resident economic units. The amount of fuels reported under the item “marine bunkers” in energy statistics are excluded from the territory based key indicator “Gross inland energy consumption”. Hence they do not count as energy purchases by non-residents on the territory in the bridge table;
- land transport operated by non-residents on the territory – the purchases of energy products used for road transport made by non-residents (enterprises and households) in Estonia;
- water transport operated by non-residents on the territory – the purchase of energy products on the territory by non-resident economic units used in water transport. Fuels reported under the item “marine bunkers” in energy statistics are excluded;
- air transport operated by non-residents on the territory – the purchase of energy products on the territory by non-resident economic units used in air transport;
- statistical discrepancies;
- energy flows not reported in energy statistics but included in PEFA;
- gross inland energy consumption (based on territory principle) – indicator which is produced and disseminated by Eurostat based on data submitted by countries.
Energy producers and consumers
Energy producers and consumers
Estonia as a whole
DIRECTLY APPLICABLE LEGAL ACTS
Regulation (EU) No 691/2011 of the European Parliament and of the Council of 6 July 2011 on European environmental economic accounts
Regulation (EU) No 538/2014 of the European Parliament and of the Council of 16 April 2014 amending Regulation (EU) No 691/2011 on European environmental economic accounts (Text with EEA relevance)
OTHER LEGAL ACTS
The dissemination of data collected for the purpose of producing official statistics is guided by the requirements provided for in § 32, § 34, § 35, § 38 of the Official Statistics Act.
The treatment of confidential data is regulated by the Procedure for Protection of Data Collected and Processed by Statistics Estonia: http://www.stat.ee/66485.
Notifications about the dissemination of statistics are published in the release calendar, which is available on the website. Every year on 1 October, the release times of the statistical database, news releases, main indicators by IMF SDDS and publications for the following year are announced in the release calendar (in the case of publications – the release month).
All users have been granted equal access to official statistics: dissemination dates of official statistics are announced in advance and no user category (incl. Eurostat, state authorities and mass media) is provided access to official statistics before other users. Official statistics are first published in the statistical database. If there is also a news release, it is published simultaneously with data in the statistical database. Official statistics are available on the website at 8:00 a.m. on the date announced in the release calendar.
Data are published in September.
The dissemination of data collected for the purpose of producing official statistics is guided by the requirements provided for in § 33, § 34, § 35, § 36, § 38 of the Official Statistics Act. Access to microdata and anonymisation of microdata are regulated by Statistics Estonia’s procedure for dissemination of confidential data for scientific purposes: http://www.stat.ee/dokumendid/51669.
Disseminated to Eurostat
Draft Eurostat manual for Physical Energy Flow Accounts
To assure the quality of processes and products, Statistics Estonia applies the EFQM Excellence Model, the European Statistics Code of Practice and the Quality Assurance Framework of the European Statistical System (ESS QAF). Statistics Estonia is also guided by the requirements in § 7. “Principles and quality criteria of producing official statistics” of the Official Statistics Act.
Statistics Estonia performs all statistical activities according to an international model (Generic Statistical Business Process Model – GSBPM). According to the GSBPM, the final phase of statistical activities is overall evaluation using information gathered in each phase or sub-process; this information can take many forms, including feedback from users, process metadata, system metrics and suggestions from employees. This information is used to prepare the evaluation report which outlines all the quality problems related to the specific statistical activity and serves as input for improvement actions.
Ministry of the Environment
Ministry of Economic Affairs and Communications
Users’ suggestions and information about taking these into account are available on the website of Statistics Estonia at http://www.stat.ee/statistikatood.
Since 1996, Statistics Estonia has conducted reputation and user satisfaction surveys.
All results are available on the website at http://www.stat.ee/user-surveys.
The completeness of data will be ensured by implementing the methodology for energy accounting.
The physical energy flow accounts data are internationally comparable, as they are based on the principles of the System of Environmental-Economic Accounting Central Framework (SEFA-CF). SEEA-CF contains internationally agreed standard concepts, definitions, classifications, accounting rules and tables to produce internationally comparable environmental statistics and to describe its relationship with the economy. The SEEA framework follows the same accounting as that used in the System of National Accounts (SNA) and uses the concepts, definitions and classifications that are consistent with the SNA to facilitate the integration of environmental and economic statistics.
The data are comparable over time as the methodology, basic principles and definitions and classifications have remained the same over time.
The physical energy flow accounts (PEFA) provides information about energy flows in a manner fully consistent with the concepts, principles and classifications of national accounts. One of the main features of PEFA is its consistency and compatibility with the national accounts’ supply and use tables. Coherence between PEFA and air emission accounts (AEA) is ensured by that they use for production activities the same economic activities (Estonian Classification of Economic Activities (EMTAK 2008) based on NACE Rev. 2). However, inconsistencies are also possible. For example, the supply and use tables of national accounts do not record some of the in-house energy flows that may be carried out in physical quantities by PEFA. The supply table rows of national accounts and PEFA are not comparable because the classification of energy products in PEFA is based on the International Standard Classification of Energy Products (SIEC) and is more detailed than in the national accounts supply tables, which use the classification of CPA (Statistical Classification of Products by Activity in the European Economic Community). Although energy statistics is the input to PEFA, the main difference between the two accounts is the residency principle: while energy statistics is based on geographic regions, PEFA follows the residency principle similarly to national and environmental accounts.
A clear statistical framework (data compilation guidelines) ensures the coherence of the outputs of the physical energy flow accounts.
The data revision policy and notification of corrections are described in the section Principles of dissemination of official statistics of the website of Statistics Estonia.
The published data may be revised when the methodology is modified, errors are discovered, new or better data become available.
Regular revisions are carried out annually, in accordance with the national accounts methodology.
From the Estonian Environment Agency, data from the Information system of ambient air pollution sources (OSIS) are obtained. Air reporting is done in accordance with regulation No. 68 of the Minister of the Environment on the format of and procedure for the submission of the annual report regarding ambient air pollution of holder of air pollution permit or integrated environmental permit (Riigi Teataja I, 22.12.2016, 6).
From the Ministry of the Environment, data from the greenhouse gas emission allowance trading system (ETS) are received. The newsletters of the Estonian Biogas Association and the Yearbook of the Estonian Oil Shale Industry of Eesti Energia are used.
DATA FROM OTHER STATISTICAL ACTIVITIES
Data from statistical activities 20205 “Energy consumption and production (monthly)” , 21408 “Supply and use tables”, 22303 “Foreign trade” and 20206 “Energy consumption and production (annual)” are used.
Administrative data are received by e-mail and via home pages.
Data are validated in comparison to previous year’s data and available data in energy statistics, production statistics, national accounts and administrative databases (KAUR). Eurostat also validates the data.
Data are compiled according to international methodological guidelines. Data from statistical activities 20205 “Energy consumption and production (monthly)”, 21408 “Supply and use tables”, 22303 “Foreign trade” and 20206 “Energy consumption and production (annual)” are used.
Data are corrected according to the revisions in national accounts and energy statistics.