Statistical activity code: 22303
Exports and imports by 2-digit, 4-digit and 8-digit commodity chapter of the Combined Nomenclature (CN)
Exports and imports by commodity section of the Standard International Trade Classification (SITC) and by the Classification of Broad Economic Categories (BEC)
Exports and imports by country
Exports and imports by county
Exports and imports by economic unit’s place of registration, economic activity (EMTAK 2008) and CN commodity section
Combined Nomenclature (CN), available in the classifications portal https://klassifikaatorid.stat.ee/item/stat.ee/c36c617b-a076-42d9-9c25-2d8c896473c7
Standard International Trade Classification (SITC Rev. 4), available in the classifications portal https://klassifikaatorid.stat.ee/Item/stat.ee/3576dfce-df4f-4945-b941-58d68528564a
Country Nomenclature for the External Trade Statistics of the Community and Statistics of Trade between Member States (GEONOM), available in the classifications portal https://klassifikaatorid.stat.ee/Item/stat.ee/09e5fe9f-5b2c-4439-95d4-5247be7557e2
Estonian Classification of Economic Activities (EMTAK 2008) based on NACE Rev.2, available on the website of Centre of Registers and Information Systems https://www.rik.ee/en/e-business-registry/emtak-fields-activities
Classification of Estonian administrative units and settlements (EHAK), available in the classifications portal https://klassifikaatorid.stat.ee/item/stat.ee/c4c47742-12d7-4fea-bc8c-5aeca9112e2a
Classification of supplementary units for commodity quantity, available on the website of Statistics Estonia https://www.stat.ee/en/quantity-supplementary-units
Classification by Broad Economic Categories (BEC), available in the classifications portal https://klassifikaatorid.stat.ee/Item/stat.ee/6842a42f-4891-4ba1-bf74-e289e78ccfb0
The BEC was defined by the United Nations in 1971 for converting foreign trade data into classes of goods by end-use that are meaningful in the System of National Accounts (SNA). The basic categories are divided by the SNA into three classes: capital goods, intermediate goods, consumption goods. Only 16 of the 19 basic categories of the BEC are used in the SNA. Such BEC categories as “Motor spirits”, “Passenger motor cars” and “Goods not elsewhere specified” are set out as separate rows in the database table, as they are not classified by the SNA. Motor spirits and passenger motor cars are used for consumption as well as for industrial supplies – therefore, it is not possible to separate them. “Goods not elsewhere specified” are goods that are not classified by the classification. Estonia’s foreign trade data are compiled by applying the classification of the Combined Nomenclature (CN). The data are converted to the categories of the BEC by correspondence tables.
Enterprises which have trade transactions with the EU countries and non-EU countries
Balance – the difference between the value of exports and imports.
Capital goods – machinery and equipment that is used for producing other goods and industrial transport equipment.
Commodity flow value – the statistical value of commodities: imports are valued in the purchase price (CIF value) and exports are valued in the sale price (FOB value). The value is in current prices. CIF value is the value of commodity which includes the cost of commodity and the costs connected with the transportation and insurance of commodity up to the border of the importing country. FOB value is the value of commodity which includes the cost of commodity and the costs connected with the transportation and insurance of commodity up to the border of the exporting country.
Commodity value change compared with previous period – commodity value change in percentages compared with previous month or year.
Commodity value change compared with the same period of previous year – commodity value change in percentages compared with the same period of the previous year.
Consumption goods – final products, consumer goods.
Country of origin – a country where a commodity has been produced. If two or more countries are connected with the production of an article, it is assumed that this article originates from the country where it was significantly processed last (it should be economically justified), resulting in the manufacture of a new product or completing an important manufacturing stage.
Economic unit – enterprise (company, sole proprietor) or non-profit unit (non-profit association, foundation, government institution, local government institution) entered in the Commercial Register. Also includes units with a foreign registry code.
To calculate the number of economic units, the data collected with Intrastat reports, customs declarations and VAT declarations are used. Enterprises, with exports and imports turnover below the threshold, also non-responding enterprises, are added on the basis of the VAT declarations submitted to the Estonian Tax and Customs Board. Private persons who have declared the exports or imports of goods in customs declarations are excluded.
Enterprise – an enterprise consists of one or more companies (public limited company, private limited company, limited partnership, general partnership, commercial association) or branches of foreign companies or sole proprietors.
Exports – exportation of goods produced in Estonia, exportation of goods imported from a foreign country (re-exports), temporary exportation of goods for the purpose of processing abroad, re-exportation of goods after processing in Estonia and supplies of foreign water and air craft stores. Exports exclude transit and services.
Exports of goods of Estonian origin – the export of goods produced or processed in Estonia to other countries.
Export unit value index – index, which characterises the price of exported goods.
Export volume index – ratio of the relative change of export value to the Fisher unit value index.
Extrastat (Extra-EC Trade Statistics) – the special system for collecting statistics on the trade in goods between the EU Member States and non-EU countries. Tax and Customs Board is the institution responsible for the Extrastat data collection from customs declarations. The collected data are transmitted to Statistics Estonia for compiling official foreign trade statistics.
Foreign enterprise – not an Estonian economic unit.
Imports – imports of goods into Estonia for domestic consumption and for resale to a foreign country, imports for processing in Estonia with obligation of re-export and re-imports after processing outside of Estonia. Imports exclude transit and services.
Import unit value index – index, which characterises the price of imported goods.
Import volume index – ratio of the relative change of import value to the Fisher unit value index.
Intermediate goods – semi-processed, semi-manufactured goods, industrial supplies.
Intrastat (Intra EC-Trade Statistics) – the special system for collecting statistics on the trade in goods between the Member States of the European Union (EU). Statistics Estonia is the institution responsible for the Intrastat data collection directly from enterprises involved in foreign trade. The Intrastat reports for dispatches and arrivals should be submitted by enterprises registered in the Estonian national VAT register whose foreign trade turnover has exceeded the statistical threshold set for the reporting year.
Net weight – the weight of a commodity without packaging. Net weight is presented in kilograms.
Partner country – in exports, the partner country is the country of destination. In imports there can be two partner countries: country of consignment – the country wherefrom a commodity has directly arrived, and country of origin – the country where the goods have been produced. According to the methodology of the European Union (EU) in Intrastat (trade with EU countries) can be marked code “EU” in case of country of origin, if the commodity is originated in EU, but is unknown what specific country. If the country of origin is unknown, “XX” should be marked as a code.
Persons employed – the total number of persons who work in an enterprise, irrespective of the length of their working week. It excludes those absent for a longer period (on maternity leave and enlisted, etc). The number of persons employed is unclassified in such foreign companies which operate in Estonia but do not have a commercial registry code in Estonia.
Special trade system – the system of compiling foreign trade statistics which takes into account goods crossing the boundary of the free circulation area.
Share of country – the share of the selected country (in percentages) in total exports or imports of goods.
Enterprises that have export-import transactions
List of VAT-registered enterprises who have dispatched goods to or received goods from EU countries, excluding enterprises whose turnover is below the statistical threshold. This is list is based on the value added tax return data of the Estonian Tax and Customs Board
Data from customs declarations marked with EX (exports) and IM (imports) on trade with non-EU countries
Enterprises engaged in the capture of marine organisms and products in the open sea and the sale of these products in foreign harbours
Estonia as a whole
Foreign trade unit value index and volume index are calculated since January 2012.
The value of exports and imports of goods in current prices – euro
Net weight of exported and imported goods – kg
Number of exporters and importers (enterprises)
The quantity and unit of the commodity exists if the corresponding commodity code of the Combined Nomenclature (CN) has a supplementary unit other than kilograms (e.g. litre, piece, etc.).
DIRECTLY APPLICABLE LEGAL ACTS
Regulation (EC) No 2019/2152 of the European Parliament and of the Council of 27 November 2019 on European business statistics, repealing 10 legal acts in the field of business statistics (Text with EEA relevance)
Commission Implementing Regulation (EU) 2020/1197 of 30 July 2020 laying down technical specifications and arrangements pursuant to Regulation (EU) 2019/2152 of the European Parliament and of the Council on European business statistics repealing 10 legal acts in the field of business statistics (Text with EEA relevance)
Commission Implementing Regulation (EU) 2021/1225 of 27 July 2021 specifying the arrangements for the data exchanges pursuant to Regulation (EU) 2019/2152 of the European Parliament and of the Council and amending Commission Implementing Regulation (EU) 2020/1197, as regards the Member State of extra-Union export and the obligations of reporting units (Text with EEA relevance)
Commission Delegated Regulation (EU) 2021/1704 of 14 July 2021 supplementing Regulation (EU) 2019/2152 of the European Parliament and of the Council by further specifying the details for the statistical information to be provided by tax and customs authorities and amending its Annexes V and VI (Text with EEA relevance)
Council Regulation (EEC) No 2658/87 of 23 July 1987 on the tariff and statistical nomenclature and on the Common Customs Tariff
Commission Implementing Regulation (EU) 2021/1832 of 12 October 2021 amending Annex I to Council Regulation (EEC) No 2658/87 on the tariff and statistical nomenclature and on the Common Customs Tariff
Commission Implementing Regulation (EU) 2020/1470 of 12 October 2020 on the nomenclature of countries and territories for the European statistics on international trade in goods and on the geographical breakdown for other business statistics (Text with EEA relevance)
Regulation (EU) No 952/2013 of the European Parliament and of the Council of 9 October 2013 laying down the Union Customs Code (recast)
Commission Delegated Regulation (EU) 2015/2446 of 28 July 2015 supplementing Regulation (EU) No 952/2013 of the European Parliament and of the Council as regards detailed rules concerning certain provisions of the Union Customs Code
Commission Implementing Regulation (EU) 2015/2447 of 24 November 2015 laying down detailed rules for implementing certain provisions of Regulation (EU) No 952/2013 of the European Parliament and of the Council laying down the Union Customs Code
OTHER LEGAL ACTS
Official Statistics Act
Statistical Office of the European Union (Eurostat)
Organisation for Economic Co-Operation and Development (OECD)
International Cocoa Organization (ICCO)
International Monetary Fund (IMF)
Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO)
United Nations (UN)
The dissemination of data collected for the purpose of producing official statistics is guided by the requirements provided for in § 32, § 34, § 35, § 38 of the Official Statistics Act.
The dissemination of data collected for the production of official statistics is based on the requirements laid down in §§ 34 and 35 of the Official Statistics Act.
The principles for treatment of confidential data can be found here.
Notifications about the dissemination of statistics are published in the release calendar, which is available on the website. Every year on 1 October, the release times of the statistical database, news releases, main indicators by IMF SDDS and publications for the following year are announced in the release calendar (in the case of publications – the release month).
All users have been granted equal access to official statistics: dissemination dates of official statistics are announced in advance and no user category (incl. Eurostat, state authorities and mass media) is provided access to official statistics before other users. Official statistics are first published in the statistical database. If there is also a news release, it is published simultaneously with data in the statistical database. Official statistics are available on the website at 8:00 a.m. on the date announced in the release calendar.
The news release “Foreign trade” once a month. The news release can be viewed on the website of Statistics Estonia in the section News.
VKK10: EXPORTS AND IMPORTS OF GOODS BY COMMODITY (CN) AND COUNTRY (MONTHLY)
VKK12: EXPORTS, IMPORTS OF GOODS AND THEIR CHANGE BY COUNTRY (MONTHLY)
VKK14: EXPORTS AND IMPORTS OF GOODS BY COMMODITY (SITC) AND COUNTRY (MONTHLY)
VKK16: EXPORTS AND IMPORTS OF GOODS BY COMMODITY (BEC) AND COUNTRY (MONTHLY)
VKK24: EXPORTS AND IMPORTS BY ADMINISTRATIVE UNIT (MONTHLY)
VKK26: EXPORTS AND IMPORTS BY NUMBER OF PERSONS EMPLOYED IN ECONOMIC UNIT
VKK28: EXPORTS AND IMPORTS OF GOODS BY ECONOMIC UNIT'S SITE OF REGISTRATION, ECONOMIC ACTIVITY AND COMMODITY SECTION (CN)
VKK30: EXPORTS AND IMPORTS OF GOODS BY COMMODITY (CN) AND COUNTRY
VKK32: EXPORTS, IMPORTS OF GOODS AND THEIR CHANGE BY COUNTRY
VKK34: EXPORTS AND IMPORTS OF GOODS BY COMMODITY (SITC) AND COUNTRY
VKK36: EXPORTS AND IMPORTS OF GOODS BY COMMODITY (BEC) AND COUNTRY
VKK44: EXPORTS AND IMPORTS BY ADMINISTRATIVE UNIT
VKA01: EXPORTS AND IMPORTS OF GOODS BY ECONOMIC ACTIVITY, TYPE OF TRADER AND PARTNER COUNTRY
VKA02: EXPORTS AND IMPORTS OF GOODS BY ECONOMIC ACTIVITY, NUMBER OF PERSONS EMPLOYED AND PARTNER COUNTRY
VKA03: CONCENTRATION OF EXPORTS AND IMPORTS OF GOODS BY ECONOMIC ACTIVITY AND PARTNER COUNTRY
VKA04: EXPORTS AND IMPORTS OF GOODS BY ECONOMIC ACTIVITY AND PARTNER COUNTRY
VKA05: EXPORTS AND IMPORTS OF GOODS BY ECONOMIC ACTIVITY, NUMBER OF PARTNER COUNTRIES AND PARTNER COUNTRY
VKA06: EXPORTS AND IMPORTS OF GOODS BY ECONOMIC ACTIVITY, COMMODITY (CPA) AND PARTNER COUNTRY
The dissemination of data collected for the purpose of producing official statistics is guided by the requirements provided for in § 33, § 34, § 35, § 36, § 38 of the Official Statistics Act. Access to microdata and anonymisation of microdata are regulated by Statistics Estonia’s procedure for dissemination of confidential data for scientific purposes.
Data serve as input for statistical activities 20205 “Energy consumption and production (monthly)”, 20206 “Energy consumption and production (annual)”, 20403 “Export price index”, 20404 “Import price index”, 20407 “Consumer price index”, 20408 “Producer price index of industrial output”, 20701 “Fish catch”, 20901 “Business register for statistical purposes”, 21203 “Livestock farming and meat production”, 21207 “Economic accounts for agriculture”, 21213 “Supply balance sheets of agricultural products”, 21405 “National accounts (quarterly)”, 21408 “Supply and use tables”, 22201 “Production indices” and 50101 “Regional development”.
Every year the “National Quality Report” is sent to Eurostat.
Quality report on European statistics on international trade in goods
For internal use, the document “Quality report” has been developed, which is prepared monthly and contains information about the number of enterprises in the sample, number of errors, etc.
To assure the quality of processes and products, Statistics Estonia applies the EFQM Excellence Model, the European Statistics Code of Practice and the Quality Assurance Framework of the European Statistical System (ESS QAF). Statistics Estonia is also guided by the requirements in § 7. “Principles and quality criteria of producing official statistics” of the Official Statistics Act.
Statistics Estonia performs all statistical activities according to an international model (Generic Statistical Business Process Model – GSBPM). According to the GSBPM, the final phase of statistical activities is overall evaluation using information gathered in each phase or sub-process (this information includes, among other things, feedback from users, process metadata, system metrics and suggestions from employees). This information is used to prepare the evaluation report which outlines all the quality problems related to the specific statistical activity and serves as input for improvement actions.
Ministry of Economic Affairs and Communications
Ministry of the Environment
Ministry of Rural Affairs
Eesti Pank (central bank of Estonia)
Estonian Institute of Economic Research
Since 1996, Statistics Estonia has conducted reputation and user satisfaction surveys. All results are available on the website of Statistics Estonia in the section User surveys.
In compliance with the rules (regulations).
The type of survey and the data collection methods ensure sufficient coverage and timeliness.
Data loss in Intrastat reporting due to non-response or cut-off sampling is estimated with statistical methods. The estimates are based on the data of the Estonian Tax and Customs Board (VAT forms KMD). The estimates are produced by double-digit commodity code and by country.
The data are published 40 days after the end of reference period (T + 40).
Data are published monthly. Data of the current year are revised monthly, data of the two previous years are revised twice a year (releaserein March and October).
The data have been published at the time announced in the release calendar.
In case of data comparison with other countries, or so-called mirror statistics (Estonian exports to Finland vs Finnish imports from Estonia), there can be asymmetries due to methodological differences (each country has a different statistical threshold), incorrect classification of goods or partner countries, etc.
The data for 1993–2003 are entirely comparable, but in May 2004, when Estonia acceded to the European Union, the data collection method changed. When comparing statistics produced prior to and after the accession of Estonia to the European Union, the following changes in methodology have to be taken into consideration:
1. Before the accession, foreign trade statistics were based on customs declarations and covered trade almost completely. Since the accession, foreign trade statistics on trade between European Union Member States are based on monthly Intrastat reports, which have to be submitted only by those enterprises whose value of exports or imports in trade with the Member States in the year preceding the reference period or during the reference period exceed the statistical threshold set by Statistics Estonia. The data for the remaining enterprises are estimated. The data missing due to non-response, insufficient completion of questionnaires and delays in data submission are also replaced by estimations.
2. In the case of Intrastat, statistics compiled based on the special trade system do not coincide with the data compiled on the basis of the special trade system of customs declarations. A large proportion of goods, which formerly moved under the supervision of customs authorities in customs warehouses and which were not taken into account in statistics according to the rules of the special trade system, are now in free circulation and included into statistics, as customs warehouses were replaced by intermediate depots in internal EU trade.
3. Since 2018, statistical units have been formed which influence the statistics published by economic activities. For example, while previously the economic activity of an enterprise was manufacturing, after forming a statistical enterprise, the enterprise was categorised under construction instead.
Foreign trade data collection is not related to other statistics in this field.
The outputs of the statistical activity are coherent.
The data revision policy and notification of corrections are described in the section Principles of dissemination of official statistics of the website of Statistics Estonia.
The published data may be revised if the methodology is modified, errors are discovered, new or better data become available.
The foreign trade data for the current year are revised monthly; the data for the two previous years are revised twice a year (published in March and October).
The population is 33,000 objects. The sample includes 6,000 objects.
The population comprises enterprises which trade in goods with the EU Member States (submit data with the official statistics monthly questionnaire ‟Intrastat”) and with non-Member States (submit customs declaration to the Tax and Customs Board, which are sent to Statistics Estonia for producing foreign trade statistics). Intrastat questionnaires do not need to be filled by enterprises whose turnover is below the statistical threshold; for these enterprises estimates are used based on the data of the Tax and Customs Board.
Data are also collected with the official statistics questionnaire “Exports (sale of fish and crustaceas in international waters and harbours)”.
The following monthly customs statistics are received from the Estonian Tax and Customs Board: exports to and imports from non-EU countries; movements of excise goods (fuel, alcohol and tobacco); data of value added tax returns (form KMD); data of VIES declarations (form VD).
DATA FROM OTHER STATISTICAL ACTIVITIES
Data about enterprises from statistical activity 20901 “Business register for statistical purposes”
Data are collected and the submission of questionnaires is monitored through eSTAT (the web channel for electronic data submission). The questionnaires have been designed for independent completion in eSTAT and include instructions and controls. The questionnaires and information about data submission are available on the website of Statistics Estonia in the section Questionnaires.
Data are collected with the official statistics monthly questionnaires “Intrastat. Dispatches”, “Intrastat. Arrivals” and “Exports (sale of fish and crustaceans in foreign waters and ports)”.
The data of the Tax and Customs Board are reveiced via X-Road and an FTP-server.
Arithmetic and qualitative controls are used in the validation process, including comparison with other data.
In compilation of data of foreign trade statistics, Extrastat data (customs declarations submitted by the Tax and Customs Board on trade with non-EU (European Union) countries) and Intrastat data (data collected from enterprises monthly on their trade within the EU) are added. In the case of Extrastat, there are no data losses, but in the case of Intrastat, an estimate is added for enterprises that were below the treshold or did not respond. This estimate is corrected when additional information is received. At the level of four-, six- and eight-digit commodity codes, only the collected data are presented in the tables. Data losses due to non-response or late response and enterprises below the statistical threshold are not estimated at the level of the four-, six- and eight-digit commodity codes in trade with European Union (EU) countries. Estimates are added to the data in the database at chapter level, two-digit commodity code and country level. Estimates of data losses due to non-response or late response and of enterprises below the statistical threshold in trade with EU countries have been compiled at the level of the Combined Nomenclature (CN) two-digit commodity codes and countries. The estimates are transferred to the Standard International Trade Classification (SITC) on the basis of the correlation table and the estimates are for the last 5-digit code of each section, except for the nine section where there are no estimates.
Upon calculating the Laspeyres unit value index, the export/import quantities of the base period are taken as weights. Upon calculating the Paasche unit value index, the export/import quantities of the reference period are taken as weights. The unit value index of foreign trade is based on the Fisher index, which is the geometric mean of Laspeyres and Paasche type indices.
The foreign trade statistics have been divided by economic activities according to the primary activity of the exporters and importers. The foreign trade statistics include economic units registered in Estonia and outside of Estonia. Foreign economic unit – enterprise, non-profit unit not registered in Estonia. For those foreign enterprises that are operating in Estonia and who do not have an Estonian Economic Activity code, if possible the economic activity is determined according to the primary activity of the affiliated company or foreign company’s activity in Estonia. If such determination of activity is not applied or there is no information about primary activity of enterprise, the data are classified as “economic activity not specified”.