Time Use Survey
Statistical activity code: 40101
The international time use survey:
- measures the time people spend on paid work, studying, household work, movement, care in households, personal activities;
- formulates the concept of non-market oriented work, which encompasses household work of household members, voluntary work on local government level or for some organisation, etc.;
- describes gender, family and civil policy;
- enhances social accounting by adding to national accounts estimates of unpaid work of household members.
The time use survey consists of four parts: household questionnaire, personal questionnaire, personal diaries and weekly diary.
Classification of Estonian administrative units and settlements (EHAK)
Estonian Classification of Economic Activities (EMTAK 2008) based on NACE Rev. 2
International Standard Classification of Occupations (ISCO 08)
International Standard Classification of Education (ISCED 2011)
Classification of Ethnicities 2011
International Standard Codes for the Representation of the Names of Countries (ISO 3166)
Codes for the Representation of Names of Languages (ISO 639-2)
Activity coding list
Adult and child(ren) — a household consisting of one adult and at least one child aged 0–17.
Basic and lower education — without primary education; primary education and basic education.
Couple aged 65 and over without children — a household consisting of two members, both aged 65 or more.
Couple with children aged 0–17 — a legally married or cohabiting couple with at least one child aged 0–17.
Couple with minor and adult children — a household consisting of two adults, at least one child aged 0–17 and at least one child aged 18 or over.
Couple with one child — a household consisting of two adults and one child aged 0–17.
Couple without children — a legally married or cohabiting couple without children aged under 18.
Couple without children, at least one partner is aged under 65 — household consisting of two adults, at least one of them aged 64 or less.
Couple with three or more children — a household consisting of two adults and at least three children aged 0–17.
Couple with two children — a household consisting of two adults and two children aged 0–17.
Higher education — specialized secondary education, vocational higher education, university education or postgraduate degrees.
Household — a group of persons living in the common main dwelling (at the same address), who share joint financial and/or food resources and whose members consider themselves to belong to the same household. Household can also consist of one member only.
Household with children — a household where there is at least one child aged 0–17.
Household without children — a household where there are no children aged 0–17.
Permanent resident of Estonia — a person who has stayed or intends to stay in Estonia for more than a year.
Primary activity — the main activity. E.g. childcare may be a primary activity and watching TV at the same time a secondary activity.
Rural settlement — small town or village.
Secondary activity — ancillary activity in addition to primary activity in the case of simultaneous activities. E.g. childcare may be a primary activity and watching TV at the same time a secondary activity. Respondent has to decide which activity is the main and which activity the secondary activity.
Secondary education — general secondary education and vocational secondary education.
Single — a household consisting of one member.
Single parent with children aged 0–17 — a household with one adult and at least one child aged under 18.
Single person aged over 64 — household consisting of one person aged 65 or more.
Single person aged under 65 — a household consisting of one person aged 64 or less.
Urban settlement — city, city without municipal status, or town.
The target population includes the residents of Estonia aged 10 or more, except persons living in such institutional households like care homes, prisons, etc., for a long time i.e. more than a year.
A list of permanent residents of Estonia compiled based on the population and housing census (2011) and the population register
Estonia as a whole
The dissemination of data collected for the purpose of producing official statistics is guided by the requirements provided for in § 32, § 34, § 35, § 38 of the Official Statistics Act.
The treatment of confidential data is regulated by the Procedure for Protection of Data Collected and Processed by Statistics Estonia: http://www.stat.ee/66485.
Notifications about the dissemination of statistics are published in the release calendar, which is available on the website. Every year on 1 October, the release times of the statistical database, news releases, main indicators by IMF SDDS and publications for the following year are announced in the release calendar (in the case of publications – the release month).
All users have been granted equal access to official statistics: dissemination dates of official statistics are announced in advance and no user category (incl. Eurostat, state authorities and mass media) is provided access to official statistics before other users. Official statistics are first published in the statistical database. If there is also a news release, it is published simultaneously with data in the statistical database. Official statistics are available on the website at 8:00 a.m. on the date announced in the release calendar.
Eesti rahvastiku ajakasutus. Time Use of the Population of Estonia (2012)
Data are published under the subject area “Social life / Time Use” in the statistical database at http://pub.stat.ee.
The dissemination of data collected for the purpose of producing official statistics is guided by the requirements provided for in § 33, § 34, § 35, § 36, § 38 of the Official Statistics Act. Access to microdata and anonymisation of microdata are regulated by Statistics Estonia’s procedure for dissemination of confidential data for scientific purposes: http://www.stat.ee/dokumendid/51669.
Ajakasutuse uuring 2009-2010. Metoodika raport
To assure the quality of processes and products, Statistics Estonia applies the EFQM Excellence Model, the European Statistics Code of Practice and the Quality Assurance Framework of the European Statistical System (ESS QAF). Statistics Estonia is also guided by the requirements in § 7. “Principles and quality criteria of producing official statistics” of the Official Statistics Act.
Statistics Estonia performs all statistical activities according to an international model (Generic Statistical Business Process Model – GSBPM). According to the GSBPM, the final phase of statistical activities is overall evaluation using information gathered in each phase or sub-process; this information can take many forms, including feedback from users, process metadata, system metrics and suggestions from employees. This information is used to prepare the evaluation report which outlines all the quality problems related to the specific statistical activity and serves as input for improvement actions.
Ministry of Social Affairs
State authorities – for analysing the current situation, developing action plans and policies
Local governments – for analysing the current situation, developing action plans
Research and educational institutions, libraries – for doing research and analyses, disseminating statistical information
Media – for disseminating statistical information to the general public
Companies, associations, foundations – for analysing the current situation, determining trends and making projections
International organisations and Eurostat – for assessing and analysing the situation in Estonia, developing international policies
Users’ suggestions and information about taking these into account are available on the website of Statistics Estonia at http://www.stat.ee/statistikatood.
Since 1996, Statistics Estonia has conducted reputation and user satisfaction surveys.
All results are available on the website at http://www.stat.ee/user-surveys.
The data are complete.
The accuracy of source data is monitored by assessing the methodological soundness of data sources and the adherence to the methodological recommendations.
The type of survey and the data collection methods ensure sufficient coverage and timeliness.
The error due to probability sampling is estimated.
Although a person has the obligation to ensure correctness of residential address in the Population Register, there is some under-coverage of persons and households in the register. Assuming that all persons living permanently in Estonia are registered in the Population Register and considering the amount of imprecise addresses in the Population Register, the under-coverage of households may be at most 1–1.5%.
Measurement errors can stem from the questionnaire (wording of questions, design, etc.), the respondents, the interviewers and the data collection method. While it is impossible to avoid this type of errors completely in social surveys, steps have been taken in Statistics Estonia to reduce them as much as possible.
Data checking is done in three stages: preliminary data entry checking in the laptop during the interview, secondary checking of newly received data in the office and finally data cleaning.
Data entry mistakes have decreased thanks to the continuing development of primary logical checks in the data entry program.
The time use survey is based on the international cooperation agreement (Gentleman’s Agreement) and the survey handbook issued by Eurostat. When comparing the data with data from other countries, the differences in data collection methodology, classifications and survey periods should be taken into account. Starting in 2030, the survey is planned to be conducted on the basis of the Framework Regulation for Social Statistics (Integrated European Social Statistics — IESS), which should improve the international comparability of the data.
The time series data are comparable in the main activity groups of the activity coding list for harmonised European time use surveys. Due to the change in the classification, the data are not comparable in all lower level activities.
The internal consistency of the data is ensured by the use of a common methodology for data collection and data aggregation.
The population consists of 1,212,00 objects. The sample size is 7,500 households (14,000 persons). Sample is based on simple stratified random selection by household dwelling location.
Data on percentage of loss of capacity for work (20, 30, etc., up to 100) and on degree of disability (moderate, severe, profound) are received from the Social Insurance Board
DATA FROM OTHER STATISTICAL ACTIVITIES
Over ten years
The data were collected by face-to-face household and individual interviews and by the diary questionnaire method. Each 10-year-old or older person had to complete the diary on one weekday (i.e. on a day between Monday and Friday) and on either Saturday or Sunday. In addition, each working person had to record his/her working hours in the week diary.
Data from the Estonian National Social Insurance Board are received via an FTP-server.
Arithmetic and qualitative controls are used in the validation process, including comparison with other data. Before data dissemination, the internal coherence of the data is checked.
In the case of missing or unreliable data, estimate imputation based on established regulations will be used.
Variables and statistical units which were not collected but which are necessary for producing the output are calculated. New variables are calculated by applying arithmetic conversion to already existing variables. This may be done repeatedly, the derived variable may, in turn, be based on previously derived new variables.
For statistical units weights are calculated, which are used to expand the data of the sample survey to the total population.
The weights are calculated on the basis of design weights derived from inclusion probabilities. The weights, which are first adjusted to compensate for the bias caused by non-response and then calibrated to the population data, are used in calculating the final data. The basis of the calibration is the distribution of the population of Estonia by sex and age group and county on the 1st of January according to demographic data.
Microdata are aggregated to the level necessary for analysis. This includes summation of data according to the classification and calculating various statistical measures, e.g. average, median, dispersion, etc. The collected data are converted into statistical output. This includes calculating additional variables.
By using time use diaries, information is collected on both main and secondary activities, location and means of travel. The respondent also has to specify whether he/she performed an activity alone or with someone else. Both main and secondary activities are coded on the basis of the 3-digit activity coding list.