Labour Force Survey (before IESS framework regulation)
Statistical activity code: 40701
Labour status of population aged 15–74 by sex, age group, ethnic nationality, place of residence, etc.
Employed persons by economic activity, sector of economy, occupation, employment status, full/part-time job, type of employer, etc.
Employees by economic activity, sector of economy, occupation, full/part-time job, type of employer, etc.
Unemployed persons by duration of unemployment, steps taken to find a job, status before unemployment, managing, etc.
Inactive persons by reason of inactivity, managing, etc.
Population aged 15–74 by educational level, knowledge of languages, participation in lifelong learning, etc.
Classification of Estonian administrative units and settlements (EHAK)
Estonian Classification of Economic Activities (EMTAK 2008) based on NACE Rev. 2
International Standard Classification of Occupations (ISCO 08)
International Standard Classification of Education (ISCED 2011)
Classification of fields of education and training 2013
Classification of Ethnicities 2011
International Standard Codes for the Representation of the Names of Countries (ISO 3166)
Codes for the Representation of Names of Languages (ISO 639-2)
Care – personal assistance (feeding, washing, etc.), aid in household chores (cleaning, laundry, etc.), physical assistance (walking outdoors, etc.) to persons under curatorship, keeping them company, etc.
Care services – services offered at home (paid carers) as well as those offered by institutions (retirement homes, nursing homes, etc.).
Discouraged persons – non-working persons who would like to work and would be available for work as soon as there was work, but who are not actively seeking work because they do not believe in the chance of finding any.
Economically active population / labour force – persons who wish and are able to work (total of employed and unemployed persons).
Economically passive / inactive population – persons who do not wish or are not able to work.
Employed – a person who during the reference period
- worked and was paid as a wage earner, entrepreneur or a free-lancer;
- worked without direct payment in a family enterprise or on his / her own farm;
- was temporarily absent from work.
Employment rate – the share of the employed in the working-age population.
Hobby education and recreational activities (hobby group) – long-term (hobby education) and short-term (recreational activities) systematic and guided engagement in hobbies on a voluntary basis.
Household – a group of people who live in a common main dwelling (at the same address) and share joint financial and/or food resources and whose members consider themselves to be one household. A household can also consist of one member only.
Kindergarten for children with special needs – an institution intended to provide the children with special needs up to the age of seven with preprimary education.
Labour force participation rate / activity rate – the share of the labour force (total number of the employed and unemployed) in the working-age population.
Long day group at school – care arrangement, which allows student support and supervision during free time in leisure activities and in completion of home assignments, pedagogical instruction and guidance in hobbies and in the development of interests.
Long-term health problem – long-term (6 months or longer) illness or disability.
Net income of a household member – monetary and non-monetary net income which is received as earnings from employment, income from self-employment (agricultural and non-farm employment), property income, pensions and different social benefits, grants, scholarships and other income (selling of goods, settlements of accounts (taxes), refunded insurance premiums, lottery prizes). The total household income is divided by a sum of all household members (non-equalised income).
Paid childminder – an employee who has aquired necessary knowledge and skills for taking care of and supporting the development of child(ren). A childminder provides child care services at a child's home, childminder’s home or elsewhere in the location desired by parents.
Parental leave – a child's mother or father has the right to parental leave. A parent is not entitled to parental leave if he/she is deprived of parental rights or if the child lives in a care institution.
- Parental leave can be used either in one part or in parts.
- Person who is using parental leave can be changed.
- During parental leave, an employment contract is temporarily suspended which means that the job is not lost.
Part-time worker – an employed person whose usual working time per week is less than 35 hours, except the occupations where a shortened working time is prescribed by the law.
Person with restricted ability to work due to long-term health problem – a person aged 15–64 for whom the kind or amount of work to be done or going to work is difficult due to long-term health problem.
Preparatory courses for children of pre-school age – an early childhood education acquisition format, which helps children in adjusting to school and gives the necessary prior knowledge and skills to enter the first grade. If necessary, the school may set up a group that offers the 6-7-year-old children support in acquiring preprimary education, an institution providing additional education for pre-school children (outside pre-primary education).
Primary sector – agriculture, hunting, forestry, fishing.
Private sector – enterprises whose owner is Estonian or foreign person by private law.
Public sector – enterprises and organisations whose owner is state or local government.
Rural settlements – include small towns and villages.
Secondary sector – mining, manufacturing, electricity, gas and water supply, construction.
Tertiary sector – trade, services, etc.
Underemployed – part-time worker who is willing to work additional hours and is currently (in the course of two weeks) available for it.
Unemployed – a person who fulfils the following three conditions:
- he or she is without work (does not work anywhere at the moment and is not temporarily absent from work);
- he or she is currently (in the course of two weeks) available for work if there should be work;
- he or she is actively seeking work.
Unemployment rate – the share of the unemployed in the labour force.
Urban settlements – include cities, cities as settlement units, cities without municipal status and towns.
Working-age / labour-age population – the part of the population that is used as the basis when examining the economic activity of the population, or in other words, the population of the age that is the object of a labour force survey (population between the ages of 15 and 74).
Permanent residents of Estonia aged 15–74
A list of 15–74-year-old permanent residents of Estonia compiled based on the population and housing census (2011) and the Population Register
Estonia as a whole – quarterly data
Counties – main annual indicators
DIRECTLY APPLICABLE LEGAL ACTS
Regulation (EU) No 545/2014 of the European Parliament and of the Council of 15 May 2014 amending Council Regulation (EC) No 577/98 on the organisation of a labour force sample survey in the Community Text with EEA relevance
Council Regulation (EC) No 577/98 of 9 March 1998 on the organisation of a labour force sample survey in the Community
Commission Regulation (EC) No 1897/2000 of 7 September 2000 implementing Council Regulation (EC) No 577/98 on the organisation of a labour force sample survey in the Community concerning the operational definition of unemployment
Regulation (EC) No 1991/2002 of the European Parliament and of the Council of 8 October 2002 amending Council Regulation (EC) No 577/98 on the organisation of a labour force sample survey in the Community
Commission Regulation (EC) No 2104/2002 of 28 November 2002 adapting Council Regulation (EC) No 577/98 on the organisation of a labour force sample survey in the Community and Commission Regulation (EC) No 1575/2000 implementing Council Regulation (EC) No 577/98 as far as the list of education and training variables and their codification to be used for data transmission from 2003 onwards are concerned
Regulation (EC) No 2257/2003 of the European Parliament and of the Council of 25 November 2003 amending Council Regulation (EC) No 577/98 on the organisation of a labour force sample survey in the Community to adapt the list of survey characteristics
Commission Regulation (EC) No 377/2008 of 25 April 2008 implementing Council Regulation (EC) No 577/98 on the organisation of a labour force sample survey in the Community as regards the codification to be used for data transmission from 2009 onwards, the use of a sub-sample for the collection of data on structural variables and the definition of the reference quarters
COMMISSION DELEGATED REGULATION (EU) 2016/1851 of 14 June 2016 adopting the programme of ad hoc modules, covering the years 2019, 2020 and 2021, for the labour force sample survey provided for by Council Regulation (EC) No 577/98
OTHER LEGAL ACTS
Statistical Office of the European Union (Eurostat)
Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD)
International Labour Organization (ILO)
International Monetary Fund (IMF)
The dissemination of data collected for the purpose of producing official statistics is guided by the requirements provided for in § 32, § 34, § 35, § 38 of the Official Statistics Act.
The treatment of confidential data is regulated by the Procedure for Protection of Data Collected and Processed by Statistics Estonia: http://www.stat.ee/66485.
Notifications about the dissemination of statistics are published in the release calendar, which is available on the website. Every year on 1 October, the release times of the statistical database, news releases, main indicators by IMF SDDS and publications for the following year are announced in the release calendar (in the case of publications – the release month).
All users have been granted equal access to official statistics: dissemination dates of official statistics are announced in advance and no user category (incl. Eurostat, state authorities and mass media) is provided access to official statistics before other users. Official statistics are first published in the statistical database. If there is also a news release, it is published simultaneously with data in the statistical database. Official statistics are available on the website at 8:00 a.m. on the date announced in the release calendar.
The news release “Employment and unemployment” once a quarter. The news release can be viewed on the website http//www.stat.ee/news-releases.
Data are published in the statistical database at http://pub.stat.ee under the subject area “Social life / Labour market / Employed persons / Short term statistics” in the following tables:
ML473: Employed persons by sex and sector of economy (quarters)
ML477: Employed persons by status in employment (quarters)
ML478: Employed persons by full/part-time job in main job (quarters)
ML497: Employment rate by age group and region (quarters)
ML498: Employed persons by sector of economy and region (quarters)
ML4989: Employed persons by sex, region and occupational group (quarters),
under the subject area “Social life / Labour market / Inactive persons / Short term statistics” in the following tables:
ML452: Inactive persons aged 15-74 by reason of inactivity (quarters)
ML455: Inactive persons by age group and region (quarters),
under the subject area “Social life / Labour market / Employees / Short term statistics” in the following table:
ML474: Employees by sex and sector of economy (quarters),
under the subject area “Social life / Labour market / Unemployed persons / Short term statistics” in the following table:
ML441: Unemployed persons by duration of unemployment (quarters)
and under the subject area “Social life / Labour market / General data of labour market / Short term statistics” in the following tables:
ML461: Labour status of population aged 15-74 (quarters)
ML462: Labour status of population aged 15 and older by sex and age group (quarters)
ML463: Labour status of persons aged 15-74 by place of residence and sex (quarters)
ML464: Labour status of persons aged 15-74 by ethnic nationality and sex (quarters)
ML464: Labour status of persons aged 15-74 by ethnic nationality and sex (quarters)
ML468: Labour force participation rate by age group and region (quarters)
ML469: Labour status of population aged 15-69 (quarters)
ML54: Response rate in estonian labour force survey (quarters)
The dissemination of data collected for the purpose of producing official statistics is guided by the requirements provided for in § 33, § 34, § 35, § 36, § 38 of the Official Statistics Act. Access to microdata and anonymisation of microdata are regulated by Statistics Estonia’s procedure for dissemination of confidential data for scientific purposes: http://www.stat.ee/dokumendid/51669.
Public use data files are available free of charge to anybody interested in doing statistical analysis based on microdata:
Data serve as input for statistical activities 10106 “Environmental goods and services sector accounts”, 21408 “Supply and use tables”, 40416 “Employment and financial statistics of the cultural sector”, 40601 “Registered accidents at work”, 40611 “Integration of disabled persons”, 41001 “Social exclusion – Laeken indicators”, 50101 “Regional development”, 50201 “Sustainable development indicators”, 40716 “Main employment indicators”, 40717 “Employed persons”, 40718 “Unemployed persons”, 40719 “Economically inactive population” and 40720 “Employment indicators of the immigrant population”.
Data on the quality of the population, sample and respondents are published in the Statistical Database.
“Estonian Labour Force Survey. Methodology”
To assure the quality of processes and products, Statistics Estonia applies the EFQM Excellence Model, the European Statistics Code of Practice and the Quality Assurance Framework of the European Statistical System (ESS QAF). Statistics Estonia is also guided by the requirements in § 7. “Principles and quality criteria of producing official statistics” of the Official Statistics Act.
Statistics Estonia performs all statistical activities according to an international model (Generic Statistical Business Process Model – GSBPM). According to the GSBPM, the final phase of statistical activities is overall evaluation using information gathered in each phase or sub-process; this information can take many forms, including feedback from users, process metadata, system metrics and suggestions from employees. This information is used to prepare the evaluation report which outlines all the quality problems related to the specific statistical activity and serves as input for improvement actions.
Ministry of Economic Affairs and Communications
Ministry of Rural Affairs
Ministry of Finance
Ministry of Social Affairs
Institute of International and Social Studies
University of Tartu
The survey serves as a basis for the analysis of changes in the labour market, which is used mainly by different ministries, universities and research organisations. At the European Union level, the data are used to make comparisons between member states.
Users’ suggestions and information about taking these into account are available on the website of Statistics Estonia at http://www.stat.ee/statistikatood.
Since 1996, Statistics Estonia has conducted reputation and user satisfaction surveys.
All results are available on the website at http://www.stat.ee/user-surveys.
The data are complete and correspond to the data composition requirements prescribed by the European Commission regulation on labour force survey statistics.
The accuracy of source data is monitored by assessing the methodological soundness of data sources and the adherence to the methodological recommendations.
The type of survey and the data collection methods ensure sufficient coverage and timeliness.
For main indicators of the labour force survey, the standard errors and relative standard errors are published in the Statistical Database.
Statistics Estonia aims to reduce the amount of non-sampling errors through continuous improvement of the methodology and the survey process, e.g. by adopting computer-assisted data collection which helps to prevent coding and typing errors. Information on response rates by group is available in the Statistical Database.
The monthly data (three months moving average) are published 60 days after the end of the reference month (T + 60).
The quarterly data are published 45 days after the end of the reference quarter (T + 45).
The annual average data are published 45 days after the end of the reference year (T + 45).
The data have been published at the time announced in the release calendar.
Data in Estonia are comparable by counties, regions and Tallinn. Data in Europe are comparable across countries. For example, data on unemployment and employment can be compared.
The survey module “Reconciliation between work and family life” was conducted as a part of Estonian Labour Force Survey in 2005 and 2010. The Estonian Labour Force Survey is based on the definitions developed by the International Labour Organisation (ILO) and they enable to compare the collected data to the data of other countries.
Statistics Estonia conducted the first Labour Force Survey at the beginning of 1995 (ELFS 95). In 1997–1999, the survey was conducted in the 2nd quarter. Starting from the year 2000, the Labour Force Survey is a continuous survey providing quarterly and annual results.
Starting from the 1st quarter of 2015, Statistics Estonia will not publish the quarterly Labour Force Survey data on economic activities and occupations; the respective data will be published once a year. Statistics Estonia will continue to publish quarterly employment data by economic activity as part of business statistics, national accounts statistics and the statistics on job vacancies and labour turnover.
Up to 2002, the respondents were classified as falling in or out of the working age population only according to the year of birth: the working age population is the population between the ages of 15 and 74 on 1 January of the reference year. Since 2002, the date of birth is taken into account then calculating the age of the respondent: the working age population is the population between the ages of 15 and 74 in the reference week. As since 2002 the age of the respondent is calculated according to the date of birth the data for age group “16 until pension age” are exactly calculated as well. Before 2002 the pension age was calculated only in full-years.
Since 2017 the general pension age is 65 years. Transitional period is established for people born in 1954–1960. For them pension age will gradually increase by 3 months for every birth year and reach to 65 years in 2026.
The data of the ELFS 95 and ELFS 97 survey week are based on the population who on 1 January of the survey year were 15–74 years old and the data in the retrospective part also covers the same part of the population who were in different age groups in the previous years. Thus, in order to guarantee the comparability of the data of different years and the usual presentation of the data in 5-year age groups, the retrospectively collected data for 1990–1996 have been presented for the population aged 15–69.
There are three data sources for measurement of unemployment in Estonia: the Estonian Labour Force Survey (ELFS) of Statistics Estonia, Eurostat’s harmonized unemployment statistics and Estonian Unemployment Insurance Fund’s registered unemployment data. The methodology of data collection and publication frequency are different for these data sources. Read more from “Estonian Labour Force Survey. Methodology”, chapter 6.1. at http://www.stat.ee/methodology.
The auxiliary employment indicators for national accounts according to the European System of Accounts (ESA) definitions are also calculated on the basis of ELFS. When using the data of ELFS and national accounts, differences arising from definitions and concepts should be taken into consideration. Read more from chapter 6.2 of “Estonian Labour Force Survey. Methodology” (http://www.stat.ee/methodology).
The Estonian Labour Force Survey (LSF) 95 and LSF 97 survey week data are about persons who on 1 January of the survey year were 15–74 years old and data in the retrospective part have been collected from the same persons who in previous years were in other age groups. Hence, retrospective data on 1989–1996 were about those aged 15–69, to ensure comparability of data and presentation of population data by five-year age groups. From 1998 to the second quarter of 2000, also people aged 75 were interviewed in the labour force survey. Therefore, retrospective data on 1997–1999 cover 15–74 year-old people. All people over 74 years of age are regarded as inactive since 1997; for earlier years - people over 69. The expansion of the labour force survey data is based on the estimated population number as at 1 January of the survey year. The expansion factors are calculated by county, sex and 5-year age groups. Data published in the database on 1990–1999 have been amended using the adjusted population number in the years between the censuses of 1989 and 2000. Data on 2000–2013 have been corrected using the number of population recalculated on the basis of the 2011 census and registry data (see methodology for recalculating the population number at http://www.stat.ee/75541 (in Estonian) and methodology for recalculating the labour-force survey data at http://www.stat.ee/76254 (in Estonian)).
Due to rounding, the sums received by adding numbers in tables are not always equal with the total. The difference can be up to some last decimal places.
Total population is 990,000 persons aged 15–74. The sample includes 3,000 households (6,000 persons) per quarter. The sample design is stratified systematic sampling of individuals whose households are included into sample.
Stratification is made by place of residence. The 15 counties of Estonia and Tallinn are divided into four strata according to the population size (I – Tallinn, II – four bigger counties (Harju (without Tallinn), Ida-Viru, Pärnu, Tartu), III – ten smaller counties (Jõgeva, Järva, Lääne, Lääne-Viru, Põlva, Rapla, Saare, Valga, Viljandi, Võru), IV – Hiiu county).
Data on percentage of loss of capacity for work (20, 30, etc. up to 100) and on degree of disability (moderate, severe, profound) are received from the Estonian National Social Insurance Board.
Data on ongoing studies, if a person is studying in Estonia, are received from the Estonian Education Information System (EHIS).
DATA FROM OTHER STATISTICAL ACTIVITIES
The data are collected from individuals. The method used for collecting the data is a personal interview (CAPI) and a telephone interview (CATI) in the case of households who have been interviewed before. The interviews are conducted by Statistics Estonia's interviewers with relevant training. The Survey Fieldwork Information System is used to manage and monitor data collection. The questionnaires have been designed to be filled in electronically by the interviewer. Information about the questionnaires and data submission is available on the website of Statistics Estonia in the section Questionnaires.
The data are collected with the official statistical questionnaires “Labour Force Survey. Personal questionnaire” and “Labour Force Survey. Household questionnaire”. The reference weeks for the households in the sample are spread uniformly throughout the whole year, e.g. for every week of the year same number of interviews is done.
The data of the Estonian National Social Insurance Board are received via an FTP-server.
Until the 2nd quarter of 2000, the questionnaire of labour force survey consisted of two parts:
- the part of the reference week in which the data were collected about the week preceding the survey;
- the retrospective part in which the data were collected about the changes of work in the years preceding the survey.
The quarterly results are received on the basis of continuous survey since the 1st quarter of 2000, but in the 1st and 2nd quarters the retrospective data were collected for the year 1999, as the survey was conducted in the 2nd quarter only. Since the 3rd quarter of 2000, the retrospective data are not collected. It is not necessary as the survey is conducted continuously. The annual averages are calculated as arithmetical mean of quarters. The 1989 Population Census database served as a sample frame in 1995, in 1997–2001 the population database of the Andmevara Ltd (Population Register), in 2002–2004 the 2000 Population and Housing Census database, in 2005–2012 population register and since 2013 the 2011 Population and Housing Census database is used.
Starting from 1998 to the 2nd quarter of 2000, 75-year-old people are interviewed as well. Thus, the retrospective data for 1997–1999 were collected about the population aged 15–74. In the data for 1997–2000 all persons aged over 74 are considered as inactive, in the case of earlier years inactive are all those aged over 69.
Arithmetic and qualitative controls are used in the validation process, including comparison with other data. Before data dissemination, the internal coherence of the data is checked.
For non-response correction, individuals are divided into seven response homogeneity groups by place of residence (county and urban/rural) according to the non-response rate in the region. The weight of non-response of the individual is inversely proportional to the overall response rate in this group.
Before expanding data to the population the weights will be calibrated by sex and five-year age groups and county of residence of person. The basis of the calibration is the distribution of the population of Estonia by sex, age group and county on 1 January according to demographic data. After computing calibrated weights, the expansion factor is calculated for every respondent, which is the ratio of the total population to the number of interviewees per quarter. The final weight of the individual is calculated by multiplying the weight found earlier with the expansion factor.
The expansion of the data of the Labour Force Survey is based on the estimated population of 1 January of the reference year. The expansion coefficients have been calculated according to county, sex and 5-year age groups. In current database, for the Labour Force Survey data for 1990–1999 revised population numbers for the years between 1989 and 2000 Population Censuses have been used. The Labour Force Survey data for 2000–2013 have been adjusted using population numbers revised on the basis of 2011 Population Census and registers.
All the data presented are estimates of actual parameters. The estimates that are based on less than 20 persons of the sample have not been published (in tables the symbol “..”) as not sufficiently reliable.
Due to rounding, the total sums in tables are not always equal with the total. The difference can be up to some last decimal places.