Social exclusion – Laeken indicators
Statistical activity code: 41001
Indicators of social exclusion – the Laeken indicators:
At-risk-of-poverty rate by age group, sex, main labour status, type of household, tenure status of the dwelling, work intensity, educational level and place of residence; equalised yearly disposable income and at-risk-of-poverty threshold of household members
Indicators of income inequality of household members, incl. by ethnic nationality and citizenship: quintile share ratio, Gini coefficient
Relative median at-risk-of-poverty gap by age group, sex, ethnic nationality and citizenship; at-risk-of-poverty rate by at-risk-of-poverty threshold, sex, ethnic nationality and citizenship; at-risk-of-poverty rate anchored in time by age group, sex, ethnic nationality and citizenship; at-risk-of-poverty rate before social transfers by age group, sex, ethnic nationality and citizenship
Accessibility of health care of persons aged 16 and older by type of health care and equalised income, age group, socio-economic status and place of residence
Share of long-term unemployed, share of persons in non-working households, youths aged 18–24 with a first or lower level of education
Classification of Estonian administrative units and settlements (EHAK)
Absolute poverty gap – the distance of mean income of people in absolute poverty from the absolute poverty threshold in percentages.
Absolute poverty rate – share of persons with an equalised yearly disposable income lower than the absolute poverty threshold.
Absolute poverty rate before social transfers – the absolute poverty rate when social benefits paid by the state and local governments are not counted in the household's income. It can be calculated in two ways: either by counting pensions as social transfers and excluding them from the household's income or, by including them in the household's income like salaries.
Absolute poverty threshold – since 2004 the estimated subsistence minimum. In 1997–2003 the absolute poverty threshold is established based on the household consumption data and considering the minimum human needs by the working group of the University of Tartu.
Adult – a household member aged 18 or older (as at 1 January of the reference year) who is not a dependent child.
Adult and child(ren) – household consisting of one adult and at least one dependent child.
At-risk-of-poverty rate – share of persons with an equalised yearly disposable income lower than the at-risk-of-poverty threshold.
At-risk-of-poverty rate anchored in time – share of persons with an equalised yearly disposable income lower than the at-risk-of-poverty threshold from three years ago adjusted for inflation.
At-risk-of-poverty rate before social transfers – the at-risk-of-poverty rate when social benefits paid by the state and local governments are not counted in the household's income. It can be calculated in two ways: either by counting pensions as social transfers and excluding them from the household's income or, by including them in the household's income like salaries.
At-risk-of-poverty threshold – 60% of the median equalised yearly disposable income of household members.
Below upper secondary education – less than primary education, primary education, basic education, vocational education for youngsters without basic education.
City and town settlement regions – cover settlements where most inhabitants live in regions where population density is greater than 200 inhabitants per km² and the population figure in a cluster of this density is greater than 5,000.
Couple aged 64 and less without children – household consisting of two members, both aged 64 and less.
Couple without children, at least one partner is aged over 64 – household consisting of two adults, at least one of them aged 65 or over.
Couple with one child – household consisting of two adults and one dependent child.
Couple with three or more children – household consisting of two adults and at least three dependent children.
Couple with two children – household consisting of two adults and two dependent children.
Dependent child – a household member aged 0–17 (as at 1 January of the reference year) or a household member aged 18–24 who is economically inactive and living with at least one parent.
Deprivation rate – the share of persons who cannot afford at least 5 of the 13 items: 1) to pay rent or utility bills, 2) to keep home adequately warm, 3) to face unexpected expenses, 4) to eat meat, fish or a protein equivalent every second day, 5) a one-week holiday away from home, 6) a car, 7) to replace furniture when worn out or damaged, 8) to replace worn-out clothes with new ones, 9) to have at least two pairs of outdoor shoes in good condition that are necessary in our climate, 10) to spend a small amount of money each week on oneself, 11) to participate regularly in a leisure activity that costs money, 12) to get together with friends or family for a drink or meal at least once a month or 13) to have internet connection at home for personal use when needed. In the Estonian Social Survey, items 8–13 are asked from persons aged 16 and over. Therefore, when calculating material deprivation for these items for children, at least half of the household members (16 and over) should be deprived with regard to these items.
Child deprivation rate – the share of children up to 16 years of age, who live in households where at least half of the members (aged 16 and older) cannot afford at least 5 items of the 13 (at least three of these five items must be from items 1–7): 1) to pay rent or utility bills, 2) keep home adequately warm, 3) face unexpected expenses, 4) eat meat, fish or a protein equivalent every second day, 5) a one-week holiday away from home, 6) a car, 7) to replace furniture when worn out or damaged, 8) to replace worn-out clothes with new ones, 9) to have at least two pairs of outdoor shoes in a good condition that are necessary in our climate, 10) to spend a small amount of money each week on him/herself, 11) to participate regularly in a leisure activity that costs money, 12) to get together with friends or family for a drink or meal at least once a month or 13) to have internet connection at home for personal use when needed. In the Estonian Social Survey, items 8–13 are asked from persons aged 16 and over. Therefore, when calculating material deprivation for these items for children, at least half of the household members (16 and over) should be deprived with regard to these items.
Disposable (net) income – a sum of income from wage labour, benefits and losses from self-employment, property income, social transfers, regular inter-household cash transfers received and receipts for tax adjustment of which inter-household cash transfers paid, taxes on wealth and repayments for tax adjustment have been subtracted.
Equalised income – total household income, which is divided by a sum of equivalence scales of all household members.
Equivalence scale – a weight designated to a household member depending on his/her age to reflect the joint consumption of a household.
Estimated subsistence minimum – the minimum amount of living resources, which covers the general daily needs of person. The subsistence minimum consists of minimum estimated food basket (excl. expenditure on alcoholic beverages and tobacco products) and individual non-food expenditures (incl. expenditure on dwelling).
Gini coefficient – the relationship of cumulative shares of the population arranged according to the level of equalised disposable income to the cumulative share of the equalised total disposable income received by them. The value of Gini coefficient varies from 0 to 1. The closer the value to 0 is, the more equally the income is distributed in a country; the closer the value gets to 1, the more unequally the income is distributed.
Highest quintile – fifth of the population receiving the highest equalised disposable income.
Household – a group of persons living in the common main dwelling (at the same address), who share joint financial and/or food resources and whose members consider themselves to belong to the same household. Household can also consist of one member only.
Household with children – household where there is at least one dependent child.
Household without children – household where there are no dependent children.
Labour status – labour status, which characterised a persons for more than 6 months in a year.
Long-term unemployment rate – the share of people who have been unemployed for a year or longer of total labour force.
Lowest quintile – fifth of the population receiving the lowest equalised disposable income.
Material deprivation rate – the share of persons, who cannot afford at least 3 items of the 9: 1) to pay rent or utility bills, 2) keep home adequately warm, 3) face unexpected expenses, 4) eat meat, fish or a protein equivalent every second day, 5) a week holiday away from home, 6) a car, 7) a washing machine, 8) a colour TV or 9) a telephone. From 2019, the term 'deprivation' is being used instead of material and severe material deprivation.
Minimum estimated food basket – food products to ensure the general daily need of nutrients, vitamins and minerals per capita without causing health problems. The diurnal energy value of the minimum estimated food basket is 2,400 kcal.
Persistent absolute poverty rate – the share of persons with an equalised disposable income below the absolute poverty threshold in the observed year and in at least two of the preceding three years. The absolute poverty threshold is estimated.
Persistent at-risk-of-poverty rate – the share of persons with an equalised disposable income below the at-risk-of-poverty threshold in the observed year and in at least two of the preceding three years. The at-risk-of-poverty threshold is set at 60%.
Quintile share ratio – the sum of equalised yearly disposable income of the highest quintile divided by the sum of equalised yearly disposable income of the lowest quintile.
Relative median at-risk-of-poverty gap – the distance of mean income of people at-risk-of-poverty from the at-risk-of-poverty threshold in percentages.
Rural settlement region – covers settlements where population density is lower than 200 inhabitants per km² or regions with higher population density where the population figure is under 5,000.
Severe material deprivation rate – the share of persons, who cannot afford at least 4 items of the 9: 1) to pay rent or utility bills, 2) keep home adequately warm, 3) face unexpected expenses, 4) eat meat, fish or a protein equivalent every second day, 5) a week holiday away from home, 6) a car, 7) a washing machine, 8) a colour TV or 9) a telephone. From 2019, the term 'deprivation' is being used instead of material and severe material deprivation.
Single person aged over 64 – household consisting of one person aged 65 or more.
Single person aged under 65 – household consisting of one person aged 64 or less.
Tertiary education – professional secondary education based on secondary education, higher education, Master`s and Doctor`s degree.
Transfers – payments made by collectively organised schemes, government or local authorities with the intension to relieve the households or persons from the financial burden of a number of risks.
Upper secondary education – vocational training based on based education, general secondary education, vocational secondary education based on basic education, professional secondary education based on basic education, vocational secondary education based on secondary education.
Very long-term unemployment rate – the share of people who have been unemployed for two years or longer of total labour force.
Work intensity in a household – the total number of months spent by working age household members (aged 59 and under) in employment or self-employment during income reference period relative to the maximum number of months the household members could have spent in employment or self-employment. The indicator ranges from zero (no working age member worked) to one (all working age members worked throughout the income reference period). Dependent children are not counted as working age household members.
Permanent residents of Estonia aged 15 and older and their household members, excl. persons living in institutional households (children’s homes, care homes, monasteries etc.)
A list of permanent residents of Estonia compiled based on the population and housing census (2011) and the population register
Estonia as a whole
Regional units (Northern Estonia, Central Estonia, North-Eastern Estonia, Western Estonia, Southern Estonia)
Urban and rural settlements
At-risk-of-poverty rate, at-risk-of-poverty gap, at-risk-of-poverty rate anchored in time, long-term unemployment rate, share of persons in non-working households, persons aged 18–24 with below upper secondary education not in education or training, share of persons with poor or very poor health, share of long-term unemployed among unemployed persons, very long-term unemployment rate, share of persons aged 25 and over with education below upper secondary education – %
Equivalised income of household member – euro
Life expectancy at birth – year
DIRECTLY APPLICABLE LEGAL ACTS
Regulation (EU) 2019/1700 of the European Parliament and of the Council of 10 October 2019 establishing a common framework for European statistics relating to persons and households, based on data at individual level collected from samples, amending Regulations (EC) No 808/2004, (EC) No 452/2008 and (EC) No 1338/2008 of the European Parliament and of the Council, and repealing Regulation (EC) No 1177/2003 of the European Parliament and of the Council and Council Regulation (EC) No 577/98 (Text with EEA relevance)
OTHER LEGAL ACTS
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The news release at the end of the year
Data are published under the subject area “Social life / Social exclusion and poverty” in the statistical database at https://andmed.stat.ee/en/stat.
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Data serve as input for statistical activity 50101 “Regional development”.
The Estonian Social Survey. Methodological Report, Statistics Estonia (2010)
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The error due to probability sampling is estimated and the sampling errors of more important indicators are published in the Statistical Database.
Although a person has the obligation to ensure correctness of residential address in the population register, there is some under-coverage of persons and households there. Assuming that all persons living permanently in Estonia are registered in the population register and considering the amount of imprecise addresses in the population register, the under-coverage of households may be at most 1–1.5%.
The data are comparable with the data of other European Union countries.
In the Eurostat public use database, at-risk-of-poverty rate and indicators of inequality have been published under one year greater than here, as Eurostat uses the survey year and Statistics Estonia an income year.
The data are comparable over time.
In the case of indicators relating to poverty and inequality it is important to keep in mind that the figures for 1997–2003 are calculated on the bases of the Household Budget Survey (HBS), whereas the indicators for 2004 and onwards are drawn from the Estonian Social Survey (ESS). The ESS is conducted in all European Union (EU) countries following the same methodological principles with the aim of collecting comparable data on income and living conditions across the EU. The two data sources – the HBS and the ESS have several substantial methodological differences, which can lead to changes in indicators for 2004 and beyond compared to previous years. When comparing 2004-2011 data with later ones, the change in data sources in 2012 must be taken into account, if income data are partly obtained from registers. The user of statistical data has therefore keep in mind that the discontinuities that may occur are methodological in nature and do not necessarily reflect underlying social changes.
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The published data may be revised if the methodology is modified, errors are discovered, new or better data become available.
Since 2012, the statistics are calculated partially on the basis of the data of registers (Tax and Customs Board, Estonian Unemployment Insurance Fund, Health Insurance Fund, Social Insurance Board).
DATA FROM OTHER STATISTICAL ACTIVITIES
Data from statistical activities 30101 “Population”, 40003 “Household Panel Survey” and 40701 “Labour Force Survey” are used.
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The collected data are converted into statistical output. This includes calculating additional indicators.
Indicators of poverty, inequality and material deprivation since 2004, as well as the share of the low-educated population and the state of health by income since 2003, have been calculated on the basis of the Estonian Social Survey (ESS). 1997–2003 poverty and inequality indicators for 2006 have been calculated on the basis of the Household Budget Survey (HBS). Since 2012, in addition to the ESS, the net income underlying the poverty and inequality indicators has been partially obtained from register data (Tax and Customs Board, Estonian Unemployment Insurance Fund, Health Insurance Fund, Social Insurance Board). Unemployment indicators and the share of early school leavers have been calculated based on the data of the Estonian Labor Force Survey (ELFS).