Farm Structure Survey
Statistical activity code: 21208
In the Farm Structure Survey, the whole activity of agricultural holdings is observed, including land tenure, management, crop and animal farming, labour force, other gainful activities, etc. The key indicators are number of holdings, utilised agricultural area, livestock units, standard output and labour input. The main indicators are published by size classes.
Classification of agricultural holdings based on the types of agricultural production
Classification of utilised agricultural area
Agricultural holding – a unit with single technical and financial management which produces agricultural products or maintains its land in good agricultural and environmental condition and where:
- there is at least one hectare of utilised agricultural land or
- there is less than one hectare of utilised agricultural land and agricultural products are produced mainly for sale.
Labour input in annual work units (AWU) – agricultural work in the holding during 12 months for 1,800 hours.
Livestock unit (LSU) – a standard measurement unit that enables the aggregation of data on different species of livestock and poultry. Livestock units are defined on the basis of the feed requirements of individual animal categories. A dairy cow corresponds to one livestock unit, the coefficients of other animals are smaller (e.g. bovine animal – 0.8; fattening pig – 0.3; broiler – 0.007). The coefficients of livestock units are established with the Commission regulation (EC) No 1200/2009.
Standard output – monetary value of gross agricultural production at farm-gate prices corresponding to the average situation of any agricultural activity, which is calculated on the basis of crop area, number of livestock and standard output coefficients.
Type of farming is determined on the basis of the share of standard output. If the share of one activity is at least two thirds of the standard output of a holding, the holding is considered to be a specialist holding, otherwise it is engaged in mixed farming.
Utilised agricultural area – area utilised in the survey year by agricultural holdings for agricultural production or maintained in good agricultural and environmental conditions (incl. arable land, permanent grassland, fruit and berry plantations, nurseries and kitchen gardens).
The frame is compiled based on the Statistical Register of Agricultural Holdings.
Estonia as a whole
2001, 2003, 2005, 2007, 2010, 2013, 2016
Agricultural holdings, animals, poultry, beehives, employed persons – number
Land use, incl. land tenure, agricultural area, agricultural crops and fallow, wooded area, unutilised agricultural area, other land – ha
Animal farming for all species of livestock as a total – livestock unit (LSU)
Manure export/import from holding – tonnes
Labour input – annual work unit (AWU)
Standard output of the holding (economic size) – euro
DIRECTLY APPLICABLE LEGAL ACTS
Regulation (EC) No 1166/2008 of the European Parliament and of the Council of 19 November 2008 on farm structure surveys and the survey on agricultural production methods and repealing Council Regulation (EEC) No 571/88
Regulation (EU) No 378/2014 of the European Parliament and of the Council of 3 April 2014 amending Regulation (EC) No 1166/2008 as regards the financial framework for the period 2014-2018
COMMISSION IMPLEMENTING REGULATION (EU) 2015/220 of 3 February 2015 laying down rules for the application of Council Regulation (EC) No 1217/2009 setting up a network for the collection of accountancy data on the incomes and business operation of agricultural holdings in the European Union
COMMISSION REGULATION (EU) 2015/1391 of 13 August 2015 amending Regulation (EC) No 1200/2009 implementing Regulation (EC) No 1166/2008 of the European Parliament and of the Council on farm structure surveys and the survey on agricultural production methods, as regards livestock unit coefficients and definitions of the characteristics
Commission Regulation (EU) No 715/2010 of 10 August 2010 amending Council Regulation (EC) No 2223/96 as regards adaptations following the revision of the statistical classification of economic activities NACE Revision 2 and the statistical classification of products by activity (CPA) in national accounts
OTHER LEGAL ACTS
The dissemination of data collected for the purpose of producing official statistics is guided by the requirements provided for in § 34 and § 35 of the Official Statistics Act.
The treatment of confidential data is regulated by the Procedure for Protection of Data Collected and Processed by Statistics Estonia: http://www.stat.ee/66485.
Notifications about dissemination of statistics are published in the release calendar, which is available on the website. Every year on 1 October, the release times of the Statistical Database, news releases, main indicators by IMF SDDS and publications for the following year are announced in the release calendar (in case of publications – the release month).
All users have been granted equal access to official statistics: dissemination dates of official statistics are announced in advance and no user category (incl. Eurostat, state authorities and mass media) is provided access to official statistics before other users. Official statistics are first published in the Statistical Database. If there is also a news release, it is published simultaneously with data in the Statistical Database. Official statistics are available on the website at 8:00 a.m. on the date announced in the release calendar.
A news release when data are published. The news releases can be viewed at http://www.stat.ee/news-releases.
Data are published under the subject area “Economy / Agriculture” in the Statistical Database at http://pub.stat.ee.
The dissemination of data collected for the purpose of producing official statistics is guided by the requirements provided for in § 34, § 35, § 36, § 37, § 38 of the Official Statistics Act. Access to microdata and anonymisation of microdata are regulated by Statistics Estonia’s procedure for dissemination of confidential data for scientific purposes: http://www.stat.ee/dokumendid/51669.
Data serve as input for statistical activities 21207 “Economic accounts for agriculture”, 21209 “Statistical Register of Agricultural Holdings” and 21214 “Crop farming”.
Handbook on implementing the FSS and SAPM definitions
Manual for Data Suppliers
A general description of the methodology can be found in the relevant EU legislative acts.
Pursuant to Regulation (EC) No 1166/2008 of the European Parliament and of the Council, a national methodological report is prepared for each survey in accordance with Eurostat’s requirements (http://epp.eurostat.ec.europa.eu/statistics_explained/index.php/Agricultural_census_in_Estonia).
To assure the quality of processes and products, Statistics Estonia applies the EFQM Excellence Model, the European Statistics Code of Practice and the Quality Assurance Framework of the European Statistical System (ESS QAF). Statistics Estonia is also guided by the requirements in § 7. “Principles and quality criteria of producing official statistics” of the Official Statistics Act.
Statistics Estonia performs all statistical activities according to an international model (Generic Statistical Business Process Model – GSBPM). According to the GSBPM, the final phase of statistical activities is overall evaluation using information gathered in each phase or sub-process; this information can take many forms, including feedback from users, process metadata, system metrics and suggestions from employees. This information is used to prepare the evaluation report which outlines all the quality problems related to the specific statistical activity and serves as input for improvement actions.
Ministry of Rural Affairs
Users’ suggestions and information about taking these into account are available on the website of Statistics Estonia at http://www.stat.ee/statistikatood.
Since 1996, Statistics Estonia has conducted reputation and user satisfaction surveys.
All results are available on the website at http://www.stat.ee/user-surveys.
Methodology and organization of the Farm Structure Survey are in compliance with the requirements of regulations No (EC) 1166/2008, EC 1200/2009, etc.
The methodology of the survey, thorough checking of the data and comparison with administrative data, previous surveys and other sources ensure sufficient accuracy of the key indicators and accordance with the requirements of Regulation (EC) 1166/2008 of the European Parliament and of the Council.
The error due to probability sampling is estimated for all published indicators. Sampling errors are in accordance with the requirements of Regulation (EC) No 1166/2008 of the European Parliament and of the Council.
The aim is to reduce non-sampling errors through continous methodological and survey process improvements, incl. minimizing under- and over-coverage of the frame.
The data are comparable with the data of other European Union countries.
Comparable data are available since 2001. The data of the 2001Agricultural Census, which was conducted according to national requirements, have been recalculated on the basis of the EU harmonised definition of a holding. The new typology of agricultural holdings applied since 2010 has been a basis for recalculations back to year 2007.
The data are closely related to other agricultural statistics. The methodology of labour force data in the Farm Structure Survey differs fundamentally from the Labour Survey in social statistics.
The outputs of the statistical activity are coherent.
The population includes 17,000 objects. The sample size for the 2016 survey is 6,750.
Data on land use in the survey year and data on rural development aid in the last three years are received from the register of agricultural support and land parcels of the Estonian Agricultural Registers and Information Board (ARIB).
Data on farm animals in the survey year are received from the register of farm animals of ARIB.
The following data are received from the Agricultural Board: data on organic farming in the survey year from the register of organic farming; since 2013, data on certified seed fields in the survey year from the database of certified seed lots.
Since 2016, the data on other land use of agricultural holdings is received from the land cadastre of the Land Board.
Since 2016, the number of male and female employed persons is received from the employment register of the Estonian Tax and Customs Board.
DATA FROM OTHER STATISTICAL ACTIVITIES
Over three or four years
Data are collected through the web channel for electronic data submission and by phone interviews. From the agricultural holdings who do not submit their data on the web, the data are collected by phone interviews.
The questionnaires and information about data submission are available on Statistics Estonia’s website at http://www.stat.ee/andmete-esitamine (in Estonian).
Administrative data are received by e-mail.
Arithmetic and qualitative controls are used in the validation process, including comparison with the data of previous periods, other surveys and administrative data sources.
Data from the register of agricultural support and land parcels and from the register of farm animals of the Estonian Agricultural Registers and Information Board (ARIB) as well as from the register of organic farming are used. Missing data are collected from agricultural holdings.
For statistical units weights are calculated, which are used to expand the data of the sample survey to the total population. These data are expanded separately in each stratum. The ratios of the population size to the number of respondents in the stratum are used as expanding factors. If necessary, recalculation of weights or post-stratification are used.
In case of missing or unreliable data, missing values are imputed according to set rules. In order to compensate for the data that agricultural holdings did not report, these data are replaced with administrative data, data from previous periods or similar holdings.
Microdata are aggregated to the level necessary for analysis. This includes summation of data according to the classification and/or described size classes.
The collected data are converted into statistical output.
Additional indicators are calculated which were not collected but which are necessary for producing output. New variables are calculated by applying arithmetic and logical conversions to already existing variables. This may be done repeatedly; the derived variable may, in turn, be based on previously derived variables.