Research and development
Research and development (R&D) aim at acquiring new knowledge or using existing knowledge in a novel way. For example, it is the improvement of a product or work process. R&D ends when the main product is developed and the focus is shifted to production planning or market expansion. The main features of R&D are novelty, creativity, ambiguity, systematicity and transferability.
Novelty means discovering something new, and with that goal in mind, researchers carry out studies at universities and research institutes. In business, novelty refers to new discoveries or technologies that have not been used in the field or industry. Creativity refers to new approaches and ideas that complement existing knowledge. The input of researchers is certainly also needed to meet the requirement of creativity.
There is always a certain amount of ambiguity in R&D, as it is often difficult to assess the end result, time spent or gains. It should be possible to put research results into practice, and other researchers should be able to replicate them in future projects. Systematicity is assumed: the process and results must always be documented.
Research and development statistics provide information on
- the size of investments in R&D;
- state funding of R&D.
The statistics allow evaluating the volume of research and development in research institutes and enterprises, and to plan and monitor it at the national level.